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Eucommia leaves (Eucommia ulmoides Oliver) contain chlorogenic acid (a caffeic acid derivative) and geniposidic acid and asperuloside (ASP), iridoid glucosides used in beverages. We used a metabolic syndrome rat model, produced by feeding a 35 % high-fat diet (HFD), to examine potential anti-obesity and anti-metabolic syndrome effects and mechanisms of chronic administration of ASP. These effects were compared with Eucommia leaf extract (ELE), the positive control, which exhibits anti-obesity effects. A total of six rats were studied for 3 months in five groups. ASP suppressed body weight, visceral fat weight, food intake and circulating levels of glucose, insulin and lipids, and increased the plasma adiponectin level in rats on a HFD. These effects are similar to those of ELE, except for the influence on the plasma glucose level. RT–PCR studies showed that ASP (like ELE with known anti-obesity effects) diminished isocitrate dehydrogenase 3α, NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 1 (Comp I) mRNA and fatty acid synthase levels (white adipose tissue), increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very-long-chain mRNA levels (liver), and increased Glut4, citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase 3α, succinyl CoA synthase, peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, dihydrolipoamide succinyl transferase and succinate dehydrogenase mRNA levels (skeletal muscle) under HFD conditions. Interestingly, ASP administration resulted in significantly increased mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the brown adipose tissue of HFD-fed rats; ELE did not affect the expression of UCP1. The increased expression of UCP1 may be negated by many ingredients other than ASP in the ELE. These findings suggest that chronic administration of ASP stimulates anti-obesity and anti-metabolic syndrome activity in HFD-fed rats across several organs, similar to ELE administration; thus, ASP may be an important ingredient of ELE.
The purpose of this study is to identify psychiatric disorders and stress factors experienced by staff members in cancer hospitals who were referred to psychiatric consultation service, and to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and stress factors.
A retrospective descriptive study using clinical practice data on staff members referred to psychiatric consultation service, obtained for 8 years, was conducted at two National Cancer Center Hospitals in Japan. Psychiatric disorders were identified according to DSM-IV. Stress factors were extracted from a chief complaint at the initial visit in medical charts, using a coding approach, and grouped as job stress or personal stress. The frequencies of the stress factors were determined by two coders who were unaware of the categorized procedure. Fisher's exact test was used to determine the association between psychiatric disorders and stress factors.
Of 8077 psychiatric consultations, 65 (1%) staff members were referred. The most common psychiatric disorder was adjustment disorder (n = 26, 40%), followed by major depression (n = 17, 26%). Eight stress factors were identified from 76 meaning units and were grouped into five job stresses and three personal stresses. Of the five job stresses, four were most frequently experienced in adjustment disorders, and “failure to adapt to job environmental change” was significantly associated (p = 0.014). Two of the three personal stresses were most frequently experienced in psychiatric disorders other than major depressive disorder and adjustment disorders, and “suffering from mental disease” was significantly associated (p = 0.001).
Significance of results:
We found that very few staff members were provided with psychiatric consultation service. A comprehensive support system for job stress might be needed to prevent adjustment disorders, as those are suggested to be the most common psychiatric disorders among staff members in cancer hospitals.
The coordination of the carbon atoms in the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films formed by Ar gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) assisted deposition of fullerene was investigated using synchrotron radiation. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of the carbon K-edge of the DLC films formed by various methods were measured over the excitation energy range 275-320 eV, using synchrotron radiation. On the basis of the analysis of the peak corresponding the transition of the excitation electron from carbon 1s orbital to Φ orbital, relative sp2 contents of various DLC films were determined. The DLC films formed by Ar GCIB assisted fullerene deposition were found to consist of a high sp3 hybridized carbon.
[Ba2CuO2(CO3)]m[ACuO2]n(A=Sr) superlattices containing oxycarbonate blocks as charge reservoir have been prepared on SrTiO3 using the molecular beam epitaxy technique. First, thin films of the oxycarbonate cuprate Ba2CuO2(CO3) have been prepared on SrTiO3(001) using NO2 gas as an oxidant and CO2 gas. The films have been grown at 500°C. At higher substrate temperature or at lower CO2 pressure Ba2CuO3 was formed instead of Ba2CuO2(CO3), and the films becomes amorphous at lower temperature. X-ray diffraction and reflection high-energy electron diffraction observations indicated that (BaxSr1−x)2CuO2(CO3) grew along the  crystal orientation on SrTiO3(001) with the following epitaxial relationship: Ba2CuO2(CO3)//SrTiO3 and Ba2CuO2(CO3)//SrTiO3 . Depth profile of secondary ion mass spectrometry signals indicated the incorporation of carbon into the films. Secondly, the oxycarbonate cuprates and infinite layers have been alternately stacked. It was confirmed that Ba2CuO2(CO3)was inserted between several unit cells of SrCuO2. Electrical measurements show the as grown films to have a semiconducting behavior.
Brief reviews on corrosion and coercivity mechanisms of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets are given. Results of recently undertaken transmission electron microscopic study of Nd15 - Fe78-xCoxB7 sintered magnets (x = 3, 6 and 10) are presented. Micro-beam electron diffraction patterns obtained from Nd-Co phases in these magnets could be indexed according only to an orthorhombic cell of Nd3 Co among the binary Nd-Co compounds for x = 3 to 10. Relations of coercivity and magnetizability of this type of magnets to their microstructure are discussed in connection to the effects of V or Mo addition which are to enhance coercivity and to improve magnetizability. It is suggested that a decrease in the local demagnetization effects resulting from a decrease in the width of the grain size distribution due to these-additives is the origin of the enhancement of coercivity and the improvement of magnetizability.
A complete X-ray image of the SNR PKS1209-52 (= G296.5+10.0) was obtained with the IPC and HRI on the Einstein Observatory. The remnant has a shell-like X-ray morphology much like its appearance at radio wavelengths, while a compact X-ray source is clearly detected near the center of the remnant. The flux observed from the X-ray nebula F(0.1−4.5 keV) is 8 × 10−11 ergs cm−2 s−1, which corresponds to a luminosity L(0.1−4.5 keV) = 8 × 1035 ergs s−1 for a distance of 2 kpc. Applying a simple shell model to the X-ray emission distribution, we derived an ambient interstellar medium nO = 0.08 H atoms cm−3, total X-ray emitting plasma mass 150 M⊙, and thermal energy 1.2 × 1050 ergs. The flux from the compact X-ray source F(0.15−4.5 keV) is ~2 × 10−12 ergs cm−2 s−1. There are no obvious optical counterparts brighter than mv ~ 22 within the 3.3″ radius HRI error circle. If the object is a hot neutron star, the HRI/IPC count rate ratio implies a surface temperature of 1.6 × 106 K for NH = 3.2 × 1021 cm−2.
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