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To identify the predictors of symptomatic post-radiation T2 signal change in patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) treated with radiosurgery.
Materials and Methods:
The charts of 211 consecutive patients with arteriovenous malformations treated with either gamma knife radisurgery or linear accelerator radiosurgery between 2000-2009 were retrospectively reviewed. 168 patients had a minimum of 12 months of clinical and radiologic follow-up following the procedure and complete dosage data. Pretreatment characteristics and dosimetric variables were analyzed to identify predictors of adverse radiation effects.
141 patients had no clinical symptomatic complications. 21 patients had global or focal neurological deficits attributed to symptomatic edema. Variables associated with development of symptomatic edema included a non-hemorrhagic symptomatic presentation compared to presentation with hemorrhage, p=0.001; OR (95%CI) = 6.26 (1.99, 19.69); the presence of venous rerouting compared to the lack of venous rerouting, p=0.031; OR (95% CI) = 3.25 (1.20, 8.80); radiosurgery with GKS compared to linear accelerator radiosurgery p = 0.012; OR (95% CI) = 4.58 (1.28, 16.32); and the presence of more than one draining vein compared to a single draining vein p = 0.032; OR (95% CI) = 2.82 (1.06, 7.50).
We postulated that the higher maximal doses used with gamma knife radiosurgery may be responsible for the greater number of adverse radiation effects with this modality compared to linear accelerator radiosurgery. We found that AVMs with greater venous complexity and therefore instability resulted in more adverse treatment outcomes, suggesting that AVM angioarchitecture should be considered when making treatment decisions.
To analyze our experience with a second radiosurgical treatment for brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) after an unsuccessful first radiosurgical treatment.
Between 1993 and 2000, 242 patients were treated by the Toronto Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Center using a LINAC system. Fifteen of these patients required a second radiosurgical intervention due to the failure of the first procedure. Data was collected on baseline patient characteristics, BAVM features, radiosurgery treatment plan and outcomes. Brain arteriovenous malformation obliteration was determined by follow-up MRI and angiography and the obliteration prediction index (OPI) calculated according to a previously established formula.
The median interval between the first and second treatment was 46 months (range 39-109). The median follow-up after the second procedure was 39 months (range 26 to 72). The mean BAVM volume before the first treatment was 8.9cm3 (range 0.3-21) and before the second treatment was 3.6cm3 (range 0.2-11.6). The mean marginal dose during the first treatment was 18Gy (range 12-25) and during the second treatment was 16Gy (range 12-20). After the second treatment, nine patients had obliteration of their BAVM confirmed by angiography and one patient had obliteration confirmed by MRI, resulting in an obliteration rate of 66.6%, which is very comparable to that predicted by the OPI (65%). After the second treatment two patients had a radiation-induced complication (13.3%).
Retreatment of BAVM using a second radiosurgery procedure is a safe and effective option that offers the same rate of success as the initial radiosurgery and an acceptable risk of radiation-induced complication.
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