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To examine the association between household food insecurity and dietary diversity in the past 24h (dietary diversity score (DDS, range: 0–9); minimum dietary diversity (MDD, consumption of three or more food groups); consumption of nine separate food groups) among pregnant and lactating women in rural Malawi.
Two rural districts in Central Malawi.
Pregnant (n 589) and lactating (n 641) women.
Of surveyed pregnant and lactating women, 66·7 and 68·6 %, respectively, experienced moderate or severe food insecurity and only 32·4 and 28·1 %, respectively, met MDD. Compared with food-secure pregnant women, those who reported severe food insecurity had a 0·36 lower DDS (P<0·05) and more than threefold higher risk (OR; 95 % CI) of not consuming meat/fish (3·19; CI 1·68, 6·03). The risk of not consuming eggs (3·77; 1·04, 13·7) was higher among moderately food-insecure pregnant women. Compared with food-secure lactating women, those who reported mild, moderate and severe food insecurity showed a 0·36, 0·44 and 0·62 lower DDS, respectively (all P<0·05). The risk of not achieving MDD was higher among moderately (1·95; 1·06, 3·59) and severely (2·82; 1·53, 5·22) food-insecure lactating women. The risk of not consuming meat/fish and eggs increased in a dose–response manner among lactating women experiencing mild (1·75; 1·01, 3·03 and 2·81; 1·09, 7·25), moderate (2·66; 1·47, 4·82 and 3·75; 1·40, 10·0) and severe (5·33; 2·63, 10·8 and 3·47; 1·19, 10·1) food insecurity.
Addressing food insecurity during and after pregnancy needs to be considered when designing nutrition programmes aiming to increase dietary diversity in rural Malawi.
A community-based participatory nutrition promotion (CPNP) programme, involving a 2-week group nutrition session, attempted to improve child feeding and hygiene. The implementation, utilization and influence of the CPNP programme were examined by programme impact pathway (PIP) analysis.
Five CPNP programme components were evaluated: (i) degree of implementation; (ii) participants’ perception of the nutrition sessions; (iii) participants’ message recall; (iv) utilization of feeding and hygiene practices at early programme stage; and (v) participants’ engagement in other programmes.
Habro and Melka Bello districts, Ethiopia.
Records of 372 nutrition sessions, as part of a cluster-randomized trial, among mothers (n 876 in intervention area, n 914 in control area) from a household survey and CPNP participants (n 197) from a recall survey.
Overall, most activities related to nutrition sessions were successfully operated with high fidelity (>90 %), but a few elements of the protocol were only moderately achieved. The recall survey among participants showed a positive perception of the sessions (~90 %) and a moderate level of message recall (~65 %). The household survey found that the CPNP participants had higher minimum dietary diversity at the early stage (34·0 v. 19·9 %, P=0·01) and a higher involvement in the Essential Nutrition Action (ENA) programme over a year of follow-up (28·2 v. 18·3 %; P<0·0001) compared with non-participants within the intervention area.
Our PIP analysis suggests that CPNP was feasibly implemented, promoted a sustained utilization of proper feeding behaviours, and enhanced participation in the existing ENA programme. These findings provide a possible explanation to understanding CPNP’s effectiveness.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based participatory nutrition promotion (CPNP) programme involving a 2-week group nutrition session in improving child feeding and hygiene practices among caregivers.
Cluster randomized trial. In the intervention area (six clusters), the CPNP programme was added to the context of government nutrition programmes; the control area (six clusters) received the government programme only. Child feeding practices were assessed every 3 months using a 24 h dietary recall questionnaire, and hand washing with soap was assessed every 6 months, over a period of 12 months. Feeding and hygiene measures at each visit were scored and the scores summed up for the entire follow-up period.
Habro and Melka Bello districts, Ethiopia.
Randomly selected mothers with a child aged 6–12 months (n 1790).
A total of 1199 mothers, 629 in the control and 570 in the intervention areas, were assessed at all visits and included in the analysis. Mothers in the intervention area showed higher scores than those in the control area regarding meal frequency (difference: 1·04, 95 % CI 0·35, 1·73), composite feeding score_1 (difference: 1·25, 95 % CI 0·37, 2·13; a summing score of currently breast-feeding, meal frequency and dietary diversity) and composite feeding score_2 (difference: 1·40, 95 % CI 0·49, 2·32; a summing score of meal frequency and dietary diversity). However, there were no differences in the scores of breast-feeding, dietary diversity and hand washing between the two areas (all P>0·05).
The CPNP programme was effective in improving some child feeding behaviours in rural Eastern Ethiopia.
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