To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between students’ perceptions of their school policies and environments (i.e. sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) free policy, plain water drinking, vegetables and fruit eating campaign, outdoor physical activity initiative, and the SH150 programme (exercise 150 min/week at school)) and their dietary behaviours and physical activity.
Primary, middle and high schools in Taiwan.
A nationally representative sample of 2433 primary school (5th–6th grade) students, 3212 middle school students and 2829 high school students completed the online survey in 2018.
Multivariate analysis results showed that after controlling for school level, gender and age, the students’ perceptions of school sugar-free policies were negatively associated with the consumption of SSB and positively associated with consumption of plain water. Schools’ campaigns promoting the eating of vegetables and fruit were positively associated with students’ consumption of vegetables. In addition, schools’ initiatives promoting outdoor physical activity and the SH150 programme were positively associated with students’ engagement in outdoor physical activities and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.
Students’ perceptions of healthy school policies and environments promote healthy eating and an increase in physical activity for students.
A co-sputtering system was used to deposit silicon nanoclusters embedded in zinc oxide matrix (Si:ZnO) at low temperature without post-annealing. By adjusting the radio frequency power of the Si target during co-sputtering, Si:ZnO films with various crystallographic structures can be obtained. Silicon nanoclusters embedded in the zinc oxide matrix were examined using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer, and Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry. By comparing with photoluminescence spectra, we can clearly identify quantum confinement effect of silicon nanoclusters embedded in the ZnO matrix.
Use of active surveillance cultures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for all patients admitted to the intensive care unit has been shown to reduce nosocomial transmission. However, the cost-effectiveness and the utility of implementing use of active surveillance cultures nationwide remain controversial. We sought to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model that would predict the likelihood of MRSA colonization.
Two acute care hospitals, one in Pittsburgh (hospital A) and one in Kaohsiung, Taiwan (hospital B).
Nasal cultures were performed for all patients admitted to the hospitals. A total of 46 potential risk factors in hospital A and 86 potential risk factors in hospital B associated with MRSA colonization were assessed. Culture results were obtained; 75% of the data were used for training our ANN model, and the remaining 25% were used for validating our ANN model. The culture results were the “gold standard” for determining the accuracy of the model predictions.
The ANN model predictions were accurate 95.2% of the time for hospital A (sensitivity, 94.3%; specificity, 96.0%) and 94.2% of the time for hospital B (sensitivity, 96.6%; specificity, 91.8%), integrating all potential risk factors into the model. Only 17 potential risk factors were needed for the hospital A ANN model (accuracy, 90.9%; sensitivity, 98.5%; specificity, 83.4%), and only 20 potential risk factors were needed for the hospital B ANN model (accuracy, 90.5%; sensitivity, 96.6%; specificity, 84.3%), if the minimal risk factor method was used. Cross-validation analysis showed an average accuracy of 85.6% (sensitivity, 91.3%; specificity, 80.0%).
Our ANN model can be used to predict with an accuracy of more than 90% which patients carry MRSA. The false-negative rates were significantly lower than the false-positive rates in the ANN predictions, which can serve as a safety buffer in case of patient misclassification.
Indwelling urinary catheters are the most common source of infections in intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nurse-generated daily reminders to physicians to remove unnecessary urinary catheters 5 days after insertion.
A time-sequence nonrandomized intervention study.
Adult ICUs (medical, surgical, cardiovascular surgical, neurosurgical, and coronary care) of a tertiary-care university medical center.
All patients admitted to the adult ICUs during a 2-year period. The study consisted of a 12-month observational phase (15,960 patient-days) followed by a 12-month intervention phase (15,525 patient-days).
Daily reminders to physicians from the nursing staff to remove unnecessary urinary catheters 5 days after insertion.
The duration of urinary catheterization was significantly reduced during the intervention phase (from 7.0 ± 1.1 days to 4.6 ± 0.7 days; P < .001). The rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) was also significantly reduced (from 11.5 ± 3.1 to 8.3 ± 2.5 patients with CAUTI per 1,000 catheter-days; P = .009). There was a linear relationship between the monthly average duration of catheterization and the rate of CAUTI (r = 0.50; P = .01). The excess monthly cost of antibiotics for CAUTI was reduced by 69% (from $4,021 ± $1,800 to $1,220 ± $941; P = .004).
This study demonstrated that a simple measure instituted as part of a continuous quality improvement program significantly reduced the duration of urinary catheterization, rate of CAUTI, and additional costs of antibiotics to manage CAUTI.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.