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Dietary questionnaires for assessing dietary intakes among populations of individuals aged 80 years or older (the very old) are very limited. We examined the relative validity of forty-three nutrients and twenty-seven food groups estimated by a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) targeting very old Japanese, using semi-weighed dietary records (DR) as a reference.
Between June and August 2012 and between June 2015 and February 2016, a three-day non-consecutive DR (at two-week intervals) and a BDHQ were completed.
Tokyo, the capital prefecture of Japan.
Eighty very old Japanese (thirty-six men and forty-four women) aged 82–94 years.
The median intakes of 40–70 % of the crude and energy-adjusted nutrients estimated by the BDHQ were significantly different from those estimated by the DR. The median Spearman’s correlation coefficient of nutrient intakes between the BDHQ and the DR was 0·39–0·46. About half (48–56 %) of the food groups were significantly different in terms of the median intakes estimated by the BDHQ and the DR in crude and energy-adjusted values. The median Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the BDHQ and the DR was 0·45–0·48.
Acceptable Spearman’s correlations (≥0·3) were obtained for many dietary intakes among the very old Japanese population. The BDHQ is a good candidate for epidemiological studies among very old Japanese, although, for some nutrients and food groups, the difficulty of estimating accurate median intakes is one of the limitations for the tool. Further efforts to enhance the validity of the BDHQ for very old populations are needed.
The present study aimed to examine the association between household income and the intake of foods and nutrients by Japanese schoolchildren, and any differences between days with and without school lunch.
This was a cross-sectional study. Children, with the support of their parents, kept dietary records with photographs for 4 d (2 d with school lunch and 2 d without). The socio-economic status of each family was obtained from a questionnaire completed by the parents.
All students in 5th grade (10–11 years old) at nineteen schools in four prefectures and their parents (1447 pairs of students and parents) were invited to take part in the study; 836 pairs of complete data sets were analysed.
The average results of four days of dietary records showed that lower income level was associated with a lower intake of fish/shellfish, green vegetables and sugar at the food group level, a lower intake of protein and several micronutrients, and a higher energy intake from carbohydrates at the nutrient level among the children. These associations between income and food/nutrient intake were not significant on days with school lunches, but were significant on days without school lunch.
Our study confirmed an association between household income and the amount of foods and nutrients consumed by Japanese schoolchildren, and suggested that school lunches play a role in reducing disparities in the diets of children from households with various incomes.