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Acinetobacter baumannii is a causative agent of healthcare-associated infections, and the introduction and spread of A. baumannii that has acquired drug resistance within a hospital are serious healthcare problems. We investigated the transition of epidemic clones and the occurrence of outbreaks by molecular epidemiological analysis to understand the long-term behavior of A. baumannii within a single facility.
A. baumannii isolates collected from blood-culture–positive patients between January 2009 and December 2020 were subjected to PCR-based open reading frame typing (POT) for species identification, clonal typing, and homology searches.
Of the strains isolated from blood cultures, 49 were identified as A. baumannii and analyzed with POT. The POT#1=122 clones had different antimicrobial resistance profiles to the other POT clones, and strains belonging to this clone were dominant during outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter. Although the clonal diversity of A. baumannii decreased and its antimicrobial resistance increased during the outbreaks, clonal diversity and the in-hospital antibiogram improved at the end of the outbreaks. The POT#1=122 clone was not eliminated from the hospital during the study period.
POT is a simple and suitable method for molecular epidemiological monitoring and can show the introduction, outbreak, and subsequent transition of an epidemic clone of A. baumannii.
We broaden the applicability of sparse coding, a machine learning method, to low-dose electron holography by using simulated holograms for learning and validation processes. The holograms, with shot noise, are prepared to generate a model, or a dictionary, that includes basic features representing interference fringes. The dictionary is applied to sparse representations of other simulated holograms with various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Results demonstrate that this approach successfully removes noise for holograms with an extremely small SNR of 0.10, and that the denoised holograms provide the accurate phase distribution. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the dictionary learned from the simulated holograms can be applied to denoising of experimental holograms of a p–n junction specimen recorded with different exposure times. The results indicate that the simulation-trained sparse coding is suitable for use over a wide range of imaging conditions, in particular for observing electron beam-sensitive materials.
There has been little research on the health consequences of evacuation in the disaster context. A comparative analysis of survival between evacuated and nonevacuated hospital dialysis patients was conducted following Japan’s Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant incident, which occurred on March 11, 2011.
The study included 554 patients (mean age: 70.9) receiving dialysis therapy at one of the Tokiwakai Group hospitals—all of which are located in and around Iwaki City, approximately 50 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant—as of the incident date. The patients’ survival after the incident was tracked until March 3, 2017. Significant differences in mortality rates between postincident evacuees and nonevacuees were tested using the Bayesian survival analysis with Weibull multivariate regression.
Out of 554 dialysis patients, 418 (75.5%) were evacuated after the incident. The postincident mortality rate (adjusted for covariates) of evacuees was not statistically significantly different from that of nonevacuees. The hazard ratio was 1.17 (95% credible intervals: 0.77-1.74).
If performed in a well-planned manner with satisfactory arrangements for appropriate selection of evacuees and their transportation, evacuation could be a reasonable option, which might save more lives of vulnerable people.
We have demonstrated enhancement-mode n-channel gallium nitride (GaN) MOSFETs on Si (111) substrates with high-temperature operation up to 300 °C. The GaN MOSFETs have good normally-off operation with the threshold voltages of +2.7 V. The MOSFET exhibits good output characteristics from room temperature to 300 °C. The leakage current at 300°C is less than 100 pA/mm at the drain-to-source voltage of 0.1 V. The on-state resistance of MOSFET at 300°C is about 1.5 times as high as that at room temperature. These results indicate that GaN MOSFET is suitable for high-temperature operation compared with AlGaN/GaN HFET.
In this report, we have demonstrated enhancement-mode n-channel GaN MOSFETs on silicon (111) substrates. We observe a high field-effect mobility of 115 cm2/Vs, the best report for GaN MOSFET fabricated on a silicon substrate to our knowledge. The threshold voltage was estimated to be +2.7 V, and the maximum operation current was over 3.5 A. This value is the largest which have ever been reports.
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