Let φ(n) be the Euler function (i.e., φ(n) denotes the number of integers less than n which are relatively prime to n), and define
These functions were extensively studied by several mathematicians. One of the problems investigated concerns their sign changes. We say that a function fx) has a sign change at x = x0 if f(x0 −) f(x0 +) < 0, and f(x) has a sign change on the integer n if (n)f(n+1) < 0. The numbers of sign changes and sign changes on integers of f(x) in the interval [1, T] are denoted by Xf(T) and Nf(T), respectively.