This paper first investigates the influencing factors of between-receiver Differential Inter-System Bias (DISB) between overlapping frequencies of the Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo and the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). It was found that the receiver reboot and the type of observations may have an impact on DISBs. The impact of receiver firmware upgrades and the activation of anti-multipath filters are also investigated and some new results are presented. Then a performance evaluation is presented of tightly combined relative positioning for a short baseline with GPS/Galileo/QZSS L1-E1-L1/L5-E5a-L5 observations with the current constellations, in which the recently launched Galileo and QZSS satellites will also be included. It is demonstrated that when DISBs are a priori calibrated and corrected, the tightly combined model can deliver a much higher empirical ambiguity resolution success rate and positioning accuracy with respect to the classical loosely combined model, especially under environments where the observed satellites for each system are limited and only single-frequency observations are available. The ambiguity dilution of precision, bootstrapping success rate, and ratio values are analysed to illustrate the benefits of the tightly combined model as well.