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We study the arithmeticity of
-Fuchsian subgroups of some nonarithmetic lattices constructed by Deraux et al. [‘New non-arithmetic complex hyperbolic lattices’, Invent. Math.203 (2016), 681–771]. Our results give an answer to a question raised by Wells [Hybrid Subgroups of Complex Hyperbolic Isometries, Doctoral thesis, Arizona State University, 2019].
More than half of all cancer patients experience unrelieved pain. Culture can significantly affect patients’ cancer pain-related beliefs and behaviors. Little is known about cultural impact on Chinese cancer patients’ pain management. The objective of this review was to describe pain management experiences of cancer patients from Chinese backgrounds and to identify barriers affecting their pain management.
A systematic review was conducted adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were included if they reported pain management experiences of adult cancer patients from Chinese backgrounds. Five databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published in English or Chinese journals between1990 and 2015. The quality of included studies was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institution's appraisal tools.
Of 3,904 identified records, 23 articles met criteria and provided primary data from 6,110 patients. Suboptimal analgesic use, delays in receiving treatment, reluctance to report pain, and/or poor adherence to prescribed analgesics contributed to the patients’ inadequate pain control. Patient-related barriers included fatalism, desire to be good, low pain control belief, pain endurance beliefs, and negative effect beliefs. Patients and family shared barriers about fear of addiction and concerns on analgesic side effects and disease progression. Health professional–related barriers were poor communication, ineffective management of pain, and analgesic side effects. Healthcare system–related barriers included limited access to analgesics and/or after hour pain services and lack of health insurance.
Significance of results
Chinese cancer patients’ misconceptions regarding pain and analgesics may present as the main barriers to optimal pain relief. Findings of this review may inform health interventions to improve cancer pain management outcomes for patients from Chinese backgrounds. Future studies on patients’ nonpharmacology intervention-related experiences are required to inform multidisciplinary and biopsychosocial approaches for culturally appropriate pain management.
The present study investigated the effects of medium-chain TAG (MCT) on hepatic oxidative damage in weanling piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). At weaning (mean 21 (sd 1·06) d of age), twenty-four IUGR piglets and twenty-four normal-birth weight (NBW) piglets were selected according to their birth weight (BW; IUGR: mean 0·95 (sd 0·04) kg; NBW: mean 1·58 (sd 0·04) kg) and weight at the time of weaning (IUGR: mean 5·26 (sd 0·15) kg; NBW: mean 6·98 (sd 0·19) kg) and fed either a soyabean oil (SO) diet (containing 5 % SO) or a MCT diet (containing 1 % SO and 4 % MCT) for 28 d. IUGR piglets exhibited poor (P< 0·05) growth performance, lower (P< 0·05) metabolic efficiency of hepatic glutathione (GSH) redox cycle, and increased (P< 0·05) levels of reactive oxygen species, apoptosis and necrosis in hepatocytes compared with NBW piglets. The MCT diet increased (P< 0·05) the average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets during the first 4 weeks after weaning. Furthermore, MCT diet-fed piglets had a higher (P< 0·05) GSH:oxidised glutathione ratio and increased (P< 0·05) activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and GSH reductase. The expression of G6PD was up-regulated (P< 0·05) by the MCT diet irrespective of BW. Moreover, malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and apoptosis and necrosis levels in hepatocytes were decreased (P< 0·05) by the MCT diet irrespective of BW. These results indicate that MCT might have auxiliary therapeutic potential to attenuate hepatic oxidative damage in IUGR offspring during early life, thus leading to an improvement in the metabolic efficiency of the hepatic GSH redox cycle.
The present study aimed to investigate the responses of broilers with different hatching weights (HW) to dietary methionine (Met). A total of 192 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks with different HW (heavy: 48·3 (sem 0·1) g and light: 41·7 (sem 0·1) g) were allocated to a 2 (HW) × 2 (Met) factorial arrangement with six replicates of eight chicks. Control starter (1–21 d) and finisher (22–42 d) diets contained 0·50 and 0·43 % Met, respectively. Corresponding values for a high-Met treatment were 0·60 and 0·53 %. Light chicks had poorer (P< 0·05) growth performance and breast muscle weight and lower (P< 0·05) insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentration and mRNA level in breast muscle than heavy chicks when both were fed the control diets. High-Met diets improved performance and promoted breast muscle growth and IGF-I concentration in light chicks (P< 0·05). Increased IGF-I and target of rapamycin (TOR) mRNA levels as well as decreased eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), atrogin-1 and forkhead box O 4 (FOXO4) mRNA levels were induced by high-Met diets in light chicks (P< 0·05). In conclusion, the Met requirement of broilers might depend on their HW and Met levels used in the control diets in the present study were adequate for heavy chicks but inadequate for light chicks, resulting in poorer performance and breast muscle growth, which were improved by increasing dietary Met supply presumably through alterations in IGF-I synthesis and gene expression of the TOR/4EBP1 and FOXO4/atrogin-1 pathway.
Little is known about the generators system of the higher dimensional Picard modular groups. In this paper, we prove that the higher dimensional Eisenstein–Picard modular group PU(3, 1;ℤ[ω3]) in three complex dimensions can be generated by four given transformations.
In this paper, using the Schauder Fixed Point Theorem and the Vidossich Theorem, we study the existence of solutions and the structure of the set of solutions of the Darboux problem involving the distributional Henstock–Kurzweil integral. The two theorems presented in this paper are extensions of the previous results of Deblasi and Myjak and of Bugajewski and Szufla.
The measure used to assess the success of any given assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment is dependent upon whose perspective the outcome is being determined and the quality of the data available to populate the measure. The three most commonly used denominators to measure the success of ART treatment are initiated cycles, aspirations, and embryos transferred. Clinical pregnancy is the most widely used measure of the success of ART treatment. The choice of initiated cycle as the denominator is limited to differentiate the success rates between some ART procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Cryopreservation of embryos is now routine practice. The dilemma is how to present success rates of ART treatment following transfer of thawed embryos. A higher success rate is also experienced with patients undertaking their first treatment cycle or who have a history of a live birth.