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To investigate the prevalence and predictors of expressed breast-milk feeding in healthy full-term infants and its association with total duration of breast-milk feeding.
Prospective cohort study.
In-patient postnatal units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong.
A total of 2450 mother–infant pairs were recruited in 2006–2007 and 2011–2012 and followed up prospectively for 12 months or until breast-milk feeding had stopped.
Across the first 6 months postpartum, the rate of exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding ranged from 5·1 to 8·0 % in 2006–2007 and from 18·0 to 19·8 % in 2011–2012. Factors associated with higher rate of exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding included supplementation with infant formula, lack of previous breast-milk feeding experience, having a planned caesarean section delivery and returning to work postpartum. Exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding was associated with an increased risk of early breast-milk feeding cessation when compared with direct feeding at the breast. The hazard ratio (95 % CI) ranged from 1·25 (1·04, 1·51) to 1·91 (1·34, 2·73) across the first 6 months.
Mothers of healthy term infants should be encouraged and supported to feed directly at the breast. Exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding should be recommended only when medically necessary and not as a substitute for feeding directly at the breast. Further research is required to explore mothers’ reasons for exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding and to identify the health outcomes associated with this practice.
Research suggests that an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
(MBCT) course may be effective for generalised anxiety disorder
To compare changes in anxiety levels among participants with GAD randomly
assigned to MBCT, cognitive–behavioural therapy-based psychoeducation and
In total, 182 participants with GAD were recruited (trial registration
number: CUHK_CCT00267) and assigned to the three groups and followed for
5 months after baseline assessment with the two intervention groups
followed for an additional 6 months. Primary outcomes were anxiety and
Linear mixed models demonstrated significant group × time interaction
(F(4,148) = 5.10, P = 0.001) effects
for decreased anxiety for both the intervention groups relative to usual
care. Significant group × time interaction effects were observed for
worry and depressive symptoms and mental health-related quality of life
for the psychoeducation group only.
These results suggest that both of the interventions appear to be
superior to usual care for the reduction of anxiety symptoms.
The defect structure of the GaN film grown on sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) technique was found to be dependent on the AlN buffer layer growth temperature. This buffer growth temperature controlled the defect density in GaN film but had shown contrary effects on the density of screw threading dislocation (TD) and edge TD. The density of screw TD was high on lower temperature buffer but low on the higher temperature buffer. Meanwhile the density of edge TD had shown the opposite. Further examinations have suggested that the defect structure was closely related to the stress in the GaN film, which can be controlled by the growth temperature of the AlN buffer. Using the 525°C AlN buffer, optimum quality GaN film with relatively low screw and edge TDs were achieved.
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