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Li[Lix/3Mn2x/3M1−x]O2 (M = Ni, Mn, Co) (HE-NMC) materials, which can be expressed as a combination of trigonal LiTMO2 (TM = transition metal) and monoclinic Li2MnO3 phases, are of great interest as high capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. However, structural stability prevents their commercial adoption. To address this, Si doping was applied, resulting in improved stability. Raman and differential capacity analyses suggest that silicon doping improves the structural stability during electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, the doped material exhibits a 10% higher capacity relative to the control. The superior capacity likely results from the increased lattice parameters as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the lower resistance during the first cycle found by impedance and direct current resistance (DCR) measurements. Density functional theory (DFT) predictions suggest that the observed lattice expansion is an indication of increased oxygen vacancy concentration and may be due to the Si doping.
A series of CoCrFeNiMox (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2) high-entropy alloys were designed to develop a eutectic high-entropy alloy system and to acquire a superfine eutectic structure. The results show that for the CoCrFeNiMox alloys, with the increase of Mo content from 0.2 to 1.2, the microstructures shift from a typical dendrite structure to a hypoeutectic microstructure (x = 0.6), and then to a fully eutectic microstructure (x = 0.8) with a lamellar spacing only 110 nm, and finally culminate in the hypereutectic structure (x = 1.0, x = 1.2). The XRD results show that CoCrFeNiMox alloys have a single FCC phase when x is 0.2 or 0.4. When Mo content is over 0.6, it begins to separate Cr9Mo21Ni20 intermetallic compounds. The hardness of the CoCrFeNiMox alloys is increasing significantly from 172.8 to 763.7 HV with the increase of Mo content. Meanwhile, the fracture strength increased but the ductility decreases. Among these alloys, the CoCrFeNiMo0.6 alloy shows excellent integrated mechanical properties of compressive fracture strength and strain, which are 2051 Mpa and 23%, respectively.
We develop and validate a high-order reconstruction (HOR) method for the phase-resolved reconstruction of a nonlinear wave field given a set of wave measurements. HOR optimizes the amplitude and phase of
free wave components of the wave field, accounting for nonlinear wave interactions up to order
in the evolution, to obtain a wave field that minimizes the reconstruction error between the reconstructed wave field and the given measurements. For a given reconstruction tolerance,
are provided in the HOR scheme itself. To demonstrate the validity and efficacy of HOR, we perform extensive tests of general two- and three-dimensional wave fields specified by theoretical Stokes waves, nonlinear simulations and physical wave fields in tank experiments which we conduct. The necessary
, for general broad-banded wave fields, is shown to be substantially less than the free and locked modes needed for the nonlinear evolution. We find that, even for relatively small wave steepness, the inclusion of high-order effects in HOR is important for prediction of wave kinematics not in the measurements. For all the cases we consider, HOR converges to the underlying wave field within a nonlinear spatial-temporal predictable zone
which depends on the measurements and wave nonlinearity. For infinitesimal waves,
matches the linear predictable zone
, verifying the analytic solution presented in Qi et al. (Wave Motion, vol. 77, 2018, pp. 195–213). With increasing wave nonlinearity, we find that
contains and is generally greater than
provides a (conservative) estimate of
when the underlying wave field is not known.
Numerous systematic reviews of prospective studies on the association of stroke risk with the consumption of various food groups have been published. A review of the evidence across the existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses of prospective studies was conducted to provide an overview of the range and validity of the reported associations of food groups with stroke risk.
The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched for articles published up to September 2015 to identify systematic reviews of prospective studies.
A total of eighteen studies published from 2008 to 2015 were eligible for analysis. Overall, thirteen specific foods were studied for an association with stroke outcome, including nuts, legumes, fruits and vegetables, refined grains, whole grains, dairy products, eggs, chocolate, red and/or processed meat, fish, tea, sugar-sweetened beverages and coffee. Whereas a high consumption of nuts, fruits, vegetables, dairy foods, fish and tea, and moderate consumption of coffee and chocolate demonstrated a protective effect, a high consumption of red and/or processed meat was associated with increased stroke risk. Refined grain, sugar-sweetened beverage, legume, egg and whole grain intake showed no effect on stroke outcome.
The current overview provided a high level of evidence to support the beneficial effect of specific foods on stroke outcome. Clinicians and policy makers could inform clinical practice and policy based on this overview.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
Grape proanthocyanidins (GPCs) are a family of naturally derived polyphenols that have aroused interest in the poultry industry due to their versatile role in animal health. This study was conducted to investigate the potential benefits and appropriate dosages of GPCs on growth performance, jejunum morphology, plasma antioxidant capacity and the biochemical indices of broiler chicks. A total of 280 newly hatched male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into four treatments of seven replicates each, and were fed a wheat–soybean meal-type diet with or without (control group), 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg of GPCs. Results show that dietary GPCs decrease the feed conversion ratio and average daily gain from day 21 to day 42, increase breast muscle yield by day 42 and improve jejunum morphology between day 21 and day 42. Chicks fed 7.5 and 15 mg/kg of GPCs show increased breast muscle yield and exhibit improved jejunum morphologies than birds in the control group. Dietary GPCs fed at a level of 15 mg/kg markedly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity between day 21 and day 42, whereas a supplement of GPCs at 7.5 mg/kg significantly increased T-SOD activity and decreased lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde content by day 42. A supplement of 30 mg/kg of GPCs has no effect on antioxidant status but adversely affects the blood biochemical indices, as evidenced by increased creatinine content, increased alkaline phosphatase by day 21 and increased alanine aminotransferase by day 42 in plasma. GPC levels caused quadratic effect on growth, jejunum morphology and plasma antioxidant capacity. The predicted optimal GPC levels for best plasma antioxidant capacity at 42 days was 13 to 15 mg/kg, for best feed efficiency during grower phase was 16 mg/kg, for best jejunum morphology at 42 days was 17 mg/kg. In conclusion, GPCs (fed at a level of 13 to 17 mg/kg) have the potential to be a promising feed additive for broiler chicks.
The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (P<0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species (P<0.05) and carbonyl group levels (P<0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels (P=0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (P<0.05). PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length and tail moment to the basal levels in fresh oil diet. These results indicate that PQQ.Na2 is a potential antioxidant and is as effective against oxidized oil-related liver injury in laying hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals, inhibiting of lipid peroxidation and enhancing of antioxidant defense systems.
During the activation and charge process, vacancies are generated in the
Li2MnO3 component in lithium-rich layered cathode
materials. The chemical expansion coefficient tensor associated with oxygen
vacancies, lithium vacancies and a Li-O vacancy pair were calculated for
Li2-xMnO3-δ. The chemical expansion
coefficient was larger for oxygen vacancies than for lithium vacancies in most
directions. Additionally, the chemical expansion coefficient for a Li-O vacancy
pair was shown to not be a linear sum of the chemical expansion coefficients of
the two vacancy types, suggesting that the oxygen vacancies and lithium
vacancies in Li2-XMnO3-δ exhibit a coupling
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a putative essential nutrient and redox modulator in microorganisms, cell and animal models, has been recognized as a growth promoter in rodents. Growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status were evaluated on broiler chickens fed different levels of PQQ disodium (PQQ.Na2). A total of 784 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allotted into seven dietary groups: negative control group (NC) fed a basal diet without virginiamycin (VIR) or PQQ.Na2; a positive control group (PC) fed a diet with 15 mg of VIR/kg diet; and PQQ.Na2 groups fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40 or 0.80 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet. Each treatment contained eight replicates with 14 birds each. The feeding trial lasted for 6 weeks. The results showed that chicks fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet significantly improved growth performance comparable to those in PC group, and the feed efficiency enhancement effects of dietary PQQ.Na2 was more apparent in grower phase. Dietary addition of PQQ.Na2 had the potential to stimulate immune organs development, and low level dietary addition (<0.1 mg/kg) increased plasma lysozyme level. Broilers fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet gained more carcasses at day 42, and had lower lipid peroxide malondialdehyde content and higher total antioxidant power in plasma. The results indicated that dietary PQQ.Na2 (0.2 mg/kg diet) had the potential to act as a growth promoter comparable to antibiotic in broiler chicks.
In this paper, a remapping-free adaptive GRP method for one dimensional (1-D) compressible flows is developed. Based on the framework of finite volume method, the 1-D Euler equations are discretized on moving volumes and the resulting numerical fluxes are computed directly by the GRP method. Thus the remapping process in the earlier adaptive GRP algorithm [17,18] is omitted. By adopting a flexible moving mesh strategy, this method could be applied for multi-fluid problems. The interface of two fluids will be kept at the node of computational grids and the GRP solver is extended at the material interfaces of multi-fluid flows accordingly. Some typical numerical tests show competitive performances of the new method, especially for contact discontinuities of one fluid cases and the material interface tracking of multi-fluid cases.
Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight (BW) and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated the morphological and molecular basis of this phenomenon. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880) were pre-weighed and randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 incubation treatment groups: (1) dark condition (control group), and (2) monochromatic green light group (560 nm). The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps and were equalized at the intensity of 15 lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day 1 until hatching. After hatch, 120 male 1-day-old chicks from each group were housed under incandescent white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. No effects of light stimuli during embryogenesis on hatching time, hatchability, hatching weight and bird mortality during the feeding trial period were observed in the present study. Compared with the dark condition, the BW, pectoral muscle weight and myofiber cross-sectional areas were significantly greater on 7-day-old chicks incubated under green light. Green light also increased the satellite cell mitotic activity of pectoral muscle on 1- and 3-day-old birds. In addition, green light upregulated MyoD, myogenin and myostatin mRNA expression in late embryos and/ or newly hatched chicks. These data suggest that stimulation with monochromatic green light during incubation promote muscle growth by enhancing proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in late embryonic and newly hatched stages. Higher expression of myostatin may ultimately help prevent excessive proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in birds incubated under green light.
Two-dimensional (2D) disordered copper 1,3,5-tricarboxylate film on copper foil was first reported in this paper. In the x-ray powder diffraction pattern of the as-prepared film, there were only two diffraction peaks exist in d value of 6.60 and 3.32 Å, which were correspond to the (400) and (800) diffractions of bulk HKUST-1, respectively. And the d value of 6.60 Å in bulk HKUST-1 is very close to the thickness of one-layered Cu2+ plus one-layered C9H3O63− (6.59 Å). The structure of as-prepared film was proved to be 2D disordered copper 1,3,5-tricarboxylate film. The periodical stacking of Cu2+ and C9H3O63−is perpendicular to the substrate. There is no periodic structure within the layer. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope, infrared, Raman, and x-ray photoelectron spectrometer supported this result. This kind of disorder probably also existed in the reported HKUST-1 film that shows strong (400) diffraction in x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. This result probably explains why (400) diffraction in XRD pattern of reported synthesized HKUST-1 film is anomalously strong. This strategy is simple. No seed, no pretreated solvothermal mother liquors, and no specific functionalization are required.
The Visean–Serpukhovian boundary is not yet defined by a Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) but it is recognizable operationally by the appearance of the conodont Lochriea ziegleri in the L. nodosa–L. ziegleri chronocline. Foraminiferal successions across this boundary in the type area of the Serpukhovian Stage (Moscow Basin, Russia), elsewhere in Russia and in the central United States suggest that the appearances of Asteroarchaediscus postrugosus, Janischewskina delicata, Eolasiodiscus donbassicus, and specimens controversially referred to “Millerella tortula” are reliable, auxiliary indices to the base of the Serpukhovian. In southern Guizhou Province, China, Visean–Serpukhovian rock sequences from slope and platform settings have yielded rich associations of conodonts and foraminifers, respectively. The Nashui section is a leading candidate for the Serpukhovian GSSP because its slope deposits contain an uninterrupted record of conodont occurrences including the L. nodosa–L. ziegleri transition. Foraminifers recovered from the Nashui section are comparatively rare and include none of the basal Serpukhovian indices. In contrast, the nearby Yashui section represents a platform interior setting in which foraminifers flourished and conodonts were nearly absent. The base of the Serpukhovian at Yashui is marked approximately by the appearance of “tortula-like” specimens. Although it is not possible to correlate biostratigraphically between the Nashui and Yashui sections, the occurrence of “tortula-like” specimens at the Yashui section allows correlation with the mid-Venevian Substage of the Moscow Basin at a level coinciding with the appearance of L. ziegleri. Together, the slope and platform sections comprise an informative biostratigraphic reference area for micropaleontologic characterization of the Visean–Serpukhovian boundary in southern Guizhou.
Off-congruent Li-deficient MgO:LiNbO3 crystals were prepared by carrying out post-grown Li-poor vapor transport equilibration (VTE) treatments on a number of 0.47 mm thick MgO (5 mol% in growth melt or 6 mol% in crystal)-doped, initially congruent LiNbO3 plates at 1100 °C over different durations ranged in 40–395 h. At first, the VTE-induced Li composition reduction was measured as a function of the VTE duration using the gravimetric method. Then, optical absorption spectroscopy was applied to study the crystal composition effects on the fundamental optical absorption edge and OH absorption characteristic parameters including the peaking position, band width, peaking absorption and band area. These crystal composition effects enable one to establish the optical methods used for determination of the crystal composition from the spectroscopic measurements. These optical methods overcome the demerit that the gravimetric method is limited to a specific VTE temperature or crystal thickness, and can be applied to design and produce an MgO-doped crystal with desired Li composition.
Polycrystalline silicon thin films were formed from the amorphous silicon thin film by the pulsed rapid thermal annealing process enhanced with a thin nickel seed layer through the vertical crystallization mechanism. In this paper, authors presented the results on the material properties of the crystallized film. The dopant and film thickness effects were also investigated. It has been demonstrated that a 2 μm thick amorphous silicon n+-i-p+ diode structure could be transformed into polycrystalline stack with a 4-pulse 1 sec 850°C heating and 5 sec cooling cycle process.
We have measured at room temperature polarized visible and near-infrared and unpolarized mid-infrared (2.7 μm) emission spectra of Er3+ in LiNbO3 (LN) crystals grown from congruent melts doped with 0.0/0.5, 0.5/0.5, and 1.0/0.5 mol%/mol% In2O3/Er2O3. From the measured emission spectra, the emission and absorption cross section spectral distributions were analyzed based on McCumber theory and discussed in comparison with those spectra of only Er-doped LN bulk material and/or Ti: Er: LN waveguide structure and with the results from the unpolarized absorption measurements. For the 530 and 1530 nm transitions, the cross section value, polarization dependence, and spectral shape all change from the only Er-doped material to the In–Er-codoped crystal and show definite In2O3 doping level effect. The 559, 673, 996, and 1530 nm emission lifetimes were also measured and used to evaluate nonradiative multiphonon relaxation rate. The calculated radiative, measured lifetimes, and multiphonon relaxation rate also show In-codoping effects.
We have studied light-soaking effects, such as photoconductivity (PC) degradation kinetics, the changes of conductivity activation energy, Ea, and the defect density of states (DOS) in a-Si:H films deposited by hot-wire CVD. Films were deposited in a substrate temperature range from 280 to 440 °C for filament temperatures of 1900 and 2100 °C. We find that (a) the photodegradation kinetics does not follow the stretched exponential rule for all of the samples; (b) the Fermi level position moves up after light-soaking for most samples; and (c) the metastable defect DOS deduced from sub-band gap absorption is not consistent with that deduced from the electron mobility-lifetime product. The results are discussed according to the possible mechanism in which charged defects exist in hot-wire a-Si:H films.a
The thermodynamic, transport and structural properties of a binary metallic glass former in solid, liquid, and glass phases were studied using molecular dynamics simulation. We used a model binary alloy system with a sufficient atomic size mismatch and observed a glass transition in a quenching process. The diffusivity and viscosity were calculated in the liquid state and the super-cooled liquid state. The smaller atom showed higher diffusivity and more configurational randomness compared to the larger atom. The viscosity increased abruptly around the glass transition temperature. The solvent/solute concentration effect on the glass transition was examined in terms of a packing fraction. We find that the glass forming ability increases with the packing fraction in the liquid state because the densely-packed material requires more time to rearrange and crystallize.
We characterized the electronic states and microstructure of high-growth-rate a-Si:H films by employing photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopies. The growth rate was from 50 to 115 Å/s compared to the standard rate of less than 10 Å/s. For the high-growth-rate a-Si:H films, we observed typical a-Si:H features in Raman but new features in PL. The new PL features are: a) the PL peak energy is as low as ∼1.15 eV compared to the standard ∼1.4 eV at 80 K; and b) the total intensity is more than one order of magnitude higher then the standard. We suggest that the nano-scale microstructure may be responsible for the anomalous PL features.
Films prepared by hot wire CVD using H dilution ratio, R=H 2/SiH4, from 1 to 20 were studied by X-ray, Raman, PL, and conductivity measurements. We found that (a) when the dilution ratio reached R=3, the structure transition from amorphous to microcrystalline growth occured; meanwhile, PL spectrum showed a dual-peak at 1.3 and 1.0 eV; (b) the total intensity, band width, and peak position of the low energy PL band decreased with increasing H dilution; (c) both the Raman and PL measured from the transparent substrate side showed that initial growth tends to be amorphous and a portion of μc-Si was formed when R ≥ 5; and (d) the conductivity activation energy first decreased from 0.68 to 0.15 eV when the film transition from a- to μc-Si; then increased slightly with increasing μc-Si fraction. The results demonstrate that the variation of the H-dilution ratio has significant effects on both the film structures and the optoelectric properties.