To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) provides a novel opportunity to detect picometer-level displacements induced by an electric field applied through a conducting tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Recently, it was discovered that superb vertical sensitivity provided by PFM is high enough to monitor electric-field-induced ionic displacements in solids, the technique being referred to as electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM). ESM has been implemented only in multi-frequency detection modes such as dual AC resonance tracking (DART) and band excitation, where the response is recorded within a finite frequency range, typically around the first contact resonance. In this paper, we analyze and compare signal-to-noise ratios of the conventional single-frequency method with multi-frequency regimes of measuring surface displacements. Single-frequency detection ESM is demonstrated using a commercial AFM.
In this work we propose a method for analysis of postsurgical haemodynamics after femoral
artery treatment of occlusive vascular disease. Patient specific reconstruction algorithm
of 1D core network based on MRI data is proposed as a tool for such analysis. Along with
presurgical ultrasound data fitting it provides effective personalizing predictive method
that is validated with clinical observations.
More than 20000 observations of Near Earth asteroids and comets are collected and reduced in Pulkovo Observatory during last 10 years. For observations of these objects two robotic telescopes are used – ZA-320M (Cassegrain system, D = 320 mm, F = 3200 mm) at Pulkovo and MTM-500M (Maksutov – Cassegrain system, D = 500 mm, F = 4100 mm) at Kislovodsk mountain station. These telescopes perform CCD observations of objects up to 18.0 and 20.5 magnitude, correspondingly. The results of observations are regularly submitted to Minor Planet Center.
There are two mathematical models of elastic walls of healthy and atherosclerotic blood
vessels developed and studied. The models are included in a numerical model of global
blood circulation via recovery of the vessel wall state equation. The joint model allows
us to study the impact of arteries atherosclerotic disease of a set of arteries on
We present the fiber-spring elastic model of the arterial wall with atherosclerotic
plaque composed of a lipid pool and a fibrous cap. This model allows us to reproduce
pressure to cross-sectional area relationship along the diseased vessel which is used in
the network model of global blood circulation. Atherosclerosis attacks a region of
systemic arterial network. Our approach allows us to examine the impact of the diseased
region onto global haemodynamics.
During 2001–2002 we investigated current contamination of soils in several places in the Chornobyl zone. We have measured the content of alpha emitting isotopes Pu, 241Am, 154,155Eu, 90Sr, and 137Cs in layers of soil up to the depth of 30 cm. By including the two mechanisms of migration: convection and diffusion in our model, we were able to estimate the ecological and effective half-lives of self-purification processes for these layers of soil. Effective half-lives vary from 20 to 400 years dependent upon the type of soil and the isotopes.
In this paper we present a novel method of nonlinear macro model of a cantilever for mixed domain simulation only with SPICE. Based on lumped elements of equivalent circuits a model is developed, which realizes a coupled electro-thermal-mechanical simulation including crosstalk effects. The model is verified with measurement and helps to class and solve crosstalk. With SPICE as electrical circuit simulator the cantilever array could be simulate in conjunction with the excitations and analysis electronics more detailed like the system level models and faster like FEM-simulation.
Single-crystal ingots of CdTe and Cd0,96Zn0.04Te 60–100 mm in
diameter were grown by directional solidification using the self-seeding
technique. The microstructure of the crystals was
checked by optical microscopy, electron microscopy (TEM, SEM and EBIC),
cathodoluminescence, and X-ray diffraction. It was found that crystal
perfection depends to a large measure on the temperature schedule during
Lpostgrowth crystal cooling: special caution should be exercised in the
temperature interval including the polymorphous transformation. A direct
relationship between optical and electronic properties on the one hand
and crystal microstructure on the other hand was established.
Experimental investigation of thermoelectric properties of nanowires with diameter of about 5 nm was carried out. Chrysotile asbestos (a natural mineral) was used for a sample preparation. Its nano-sized channels were filled under pressure by melted InSb or Te. The measurements showed that temperature dependences of electrical resistance and thermopower of produced quantum wires differ considerably from corresponding dependences of bulk materials. It is possible to conclude that the results obtained are better described by Lattinger liquid model than by usual Fermi gas one.
A hybrid double heterostructure with large asymmetric band offsets, combining AlAsSb/InAs (as a III–V part) and CdMgSe/CdSe (as a II–VI part), has been proposed as a basic element of a mid-infrared laser structure design. The p-i-n diode structure has been successfully grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and exhibited an intense long-wavelength electroluminescence at 3.12 μm (300K). A II–VI MBE growth initiation with a thin ZnTe buffer layer prior to the CdMgSe deposition results in a dramatic reduction of defect density originating at the II–VI/III–V interface, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. A less than 10 times reduction of electroluminescence intensity from 77 to 300K indicates an efficient carrier confinement in the InAs active layer due to high potential barriers in conduction and valence bands, estimated as ΔEC = 1.28 eV and ΔEV ∼ 1.6 eV. An increase in the pumping current results in a super-linear raising the EL intensity. The type of band line up at the coherent InAs/Cd1−xMgxSe interface is discussed for 0≤x≤0.2, using experimental data and theoretical estimations within a model-solid theory.
An analytical model taking into account the influence of capillarity on the process of changing the cross-sectional shape of a cylindrical liquid inclusion enclosed in an anisotropic crystal under non-stationary thermal conditions is suggested. It is shown that the capillary effect confines the possibilities for controlling the inclusion shape under non-stationary thermal conditions. The capillarity influence becomes stronger with decreasing cross-sectional area and increasing interfacial energy. The results of calculations of the limit inclusion shape under different thermal conditions are presented and discussed.
It is well known that the temperature dependence of Seebeck coefficient of β-iron disilicide has unusual shape that cannot be described by an ordinary theory. A theory describing such a shape is suggested. It is shown this shape can be explained by optical phonon drag effect. Very high value of ZT could be achieved in some material on the base of this effect.
This work is devoted to numerical experiments for multidimensional
Spectral Inverse Problems. We check the efficiency of the algorithm
based on the BC-method, which exploits relations between Boundary
Control Theory and Inverse Problems. As a test, the problem for an
ellipse is considered. This case is of interest due to the fact
that a field of normal geodesics loses regularity on a nontrivial
separation set. The main result is that the BC-algorithm works
quite successfully in spite of this complication. A theoretical
introduction to the BC-method is included.
A comparative analysis of different Cd1−xZnxTe (CZT) crystals grown by a vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB) method is reported. The results of several analytical techniques, such as triple axis x-ray diffraction (TAD), rocking curves, low temperature photoluminescence (PL), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) are discussed. Segregated carbon inclusions were identified by SEM and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), and the results are interpreted in terms of constitutional supercooling of the solidifying CZT melt. The carbon inclusions significantly decrease the resistivity, and in some cases, the noise is too large for the fabrication of radiation detectors. Combining these results with other measurements reported by our research team , we identify correlations between the growth and the defects identified in these CZT crystals.
Several analytical techniques have been used in the study of the homogeneity of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) single crystals grown by the vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB) method. The presence of black inclusions and tubular hollow pipes has been observed by a few methods, such as photoluminescence (PL), infrared (IR) transmission microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystals investigated were grown commercially in the USA, at the Institute of Single Crystals in Kharkov, Ukraine, and at the Institute of Solid State Physics, Moscow, Russia. We discuss the homogeneity of the various CZT crystals based on the results from these measurement techniques.
We describe a novel means for the production of optically active planar waveguides. The technique makes use of a low energy plasma deposition. Cathodic-arc-produced metal plasmas are used for the metallic components of the films and gases are added to form compound films. Here we discuss the synthesis of A12-xErxO3 thin films. The erbium concentration (x) can vary from 0 to 100% and the thickness of the film can be from Angstroms to microns. In such material, at high active center concentration (x=l% to 20%), erbium ions give rise to room temperature 1.53μm emission which has minimum loss in silica-based optical fibers. With this technique, multilayer integrated planar waveguide structures can be grown, such as Al2O3/Al2-xErO3/A12O3/Si, for example.
Different aspects of interfacial interactions during the growth of epitaxial oxides are illustrated in a BaxSr1-xTiO3/YBa2Cu3O7-x/CeO2/Y-ZrO2/Si/Al2O3 heteroepitaxial multilayer. The effect of chemical interaction, interdiffusion, epitaxial strain and thermal strain are exemplified. It is shown how buffer layers can be used to compensate for otherwise detrimental interactions. Considerations necessary for annealing following the film depositions are also addressed. Even if the described structures are specific for this system, similar considerations need to be made for other oxide systems as well. The present description can provide help to identify suitable material combinations.
Using X-ray structural and transmission electron microscopy analyses, specific features of the phase and structure transformations in armco-iron and steel 45 affected by a high-current electron beam up to 1011 W/cm2 power density have been studied. It was revealed that hardening of steel with martensite structure has a quasi-periodic character that is caused by the action of a shock wave. The action of a shock wave results in formation of a thin layer on the rear side of the samples. The layer is composed of subgrains of ot-ferrite of a regular hexagonal shape with thin layers of graphite on their boundaries.