Three species, Lobothallia brachyloba Paukov & I. V. Frolov, L. epiadelpha Paukov & A. Nordin and L. zogtii Paukov & Davydov, from arid regions of Eurasia (Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China and Mongolia) are described as new to science. Lobothallia brachyloba has flat, firmly attached lobes, immersed apothecia lacking a distinct thalline margin, and contains norstictic acid. Both Lobothallia epiadelpha and L. zogtii contain stictic acid and have a brown thallus and sessile apothecia. Lobothallia epiadelpha initially develops on crustose Circinaria spp, has thick lobes loosely attached to the substratum, and brown apothecial discs with constant thalline margins. Lobothallia zogtii is a free-living species with brownish black to jet black apothecial discs surrounded by a receding thalline margin. Lecanora bogdoënsis is synonymized with Lobothallia praeradiosa and Lobothallia helanensis is synonymized with L. subdiffracta. Three new combinations, Lobothallia hedinii (H. Magn.) Paukov, A. Nordin & Sohrabi, L. lacteola (Oxner) Şenkardeşler, Paukov, Davydov & Sohrabi, and L. subdiffracta (H. Magn.) Paukov, are proposed. Phylogenetic analyses of Lobothallia brachyloba, L. epiadelpha and L. subdiffracta (ITS, mtSSU) are presented, showing their relationships within Lobothallia. The lectotype of the name Aspicilia lacteola Oxner is designated. A key to 18 species of Lobothallia is provided.