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In this paper, we consider a nonlinear elliptic system which is an extension of the single equation derived by investigating the stationary states of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Dirichlet problem on the ball and entire space as the parameters within certain regions. In addition, a complete structure of different types of solutions for the radial case is also provided.
The escalating tendency of elderly population aged 65 and over, which grown up to 9% since 2001 in Taiwan, remarks the important issue of mental health among ageing population. Depression in the elderly is frequently undetected or inadequately treated. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacotherapy of elderly patients with depression by comparing the patterns of prescribing psychotropic drugs (psychotropics) of psychiatrists and non-psychiatrists.
A random sampling of 5% of inpatients from the National Health Insurance (NHI) database in Taiwan from 2001 to 2003 was selected. In all, 1058 (0.9%) inpatients aged 65 and older with a diagnosis of any depressive disorder were included. The psychotropic prescribing pattern and the dosages used were analysed and compared. Physician specialties were based on the record of NHI database. Non-psychiatrists were defined by physicians other than psychiatry.
A total of 88% of elderly depressed inpatients had two or more comorbid physical illnesses. The most commonly prescribed psychotropics were: antidepressants (71.4%), anxiolytics (62.6%) and hypnotics (51.4%). Psychiatrists had a higher rate of prescribing psychotropics, except anxiolytics, than non-psychiatrists. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were commonly prescribed, non-psychiatrists preferred the use of tricyclic antidepressants and moclobemide. Trazodone was the most preferred antidepressant, but was generally used in low dosages.
Psychiatrists generally utilised higher dosages of newer antidepressants than non-psychiatrists. Differences in the prescribing pattern of psychotropics existed between physician specialties. Further investigations are warranted to determine how the selection and dosing of drugs influence the outcome of depression on the elderly.
Obesity and hyperlipidaemia increase the risk of CVD. Some strains of probiotics have been suggested to have potential applications in cardiovascular health by lowering serum LDL-cholesterol. In this work, high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidaemia in hamsters was treated with different doses (5×108 and 2·5×109 cells/kg per d) of heat-killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 (Lr263) by oral gavage for 8 weeks. The serum lipid profile analysis showed that LDL-cholesterol and plasma malondialdehyde (P-MDA) were reduced in the GMNL-263 5×108 cells/kg per d treatment group. Total cholesterol and P-MDA were reduced in the GMNL-263 2·5×109 cells/kg per d treatment group. In terms of heart function, the GMNL-263 2·5×109 cells/kg per d treatments improved the ejection fraction from 85·71 to 91·81 % and fractional shortening from 46·93 to 57·92 % in the high-fat diet-fed hamster hearts. Moreover, the GMNL-263-treated, high-fat diet-fed hamster hearts exhibited reduced Fas-induced myocardial apoptosis and a reactivated IGF1R/PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway. Interestingly, the GMNL-263 treatments also enhanced the heat-shock protein 27 expression in a dose-dependent manner, but the mechanism for this increase remains unclear. In conclusion, supplementary heat-killed L. reuteri GMNL-263 can slightly reduce serum cholesterol. The anti-hyperlipidaemia effects of GMNL-263 may reactivate the IGF1R/PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway and reduce Fas-induced myocardial apoptosis in high-fat diet-fed hamster hearts.
The electrical properties of chalcogenide thin films, both pristine Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and cerium-doped GST (Ce-GST), were investigated by in-situ AC impedance spectroscopy. In conjunction with the brick layer model, the contributions of both the grain and the grain boundary to the phase-transition behaviors of chalcogenide samples could be distinguished; the results illustrated the dominance of the grain boundary in the phase transition process. Moreover, impedance analysis applied to characterize the effects of doping on the phase-transition kinetics yielded results similar to those obtained by conventional methods. Therefore, in-situ AC impedance spectroscopy is a feasible tool for analyzing the phase transitions of chalcogenides.
Phase-change kinetics, structure evolution and feasibility to phase-change memory (PCM) of Ag2In7Sb64Te27 (AIST) and its nanocomposite comprised of 85 wt.% AIST and 15 wt.% SiO2 were presented. In-situ heating x-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated nanocomposite transforms from amorphous to HCP structure during heating and incorporation of SiO2 increases the recrystallization temperature (Tx) of samples (189°C for AIST and 223°C for nanocomposite). XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses both revealed the grain refinement in nanocomposite. Kissinger's analysis found the increase of activation energy (Ea) of phase transition in nanocomposite, denoting the SiO2 embedment restrains the grain growth of AIST during recrystallization. Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) theory revealed the decrease of Avrami exponent (n), indicating that the phase transition is prone to be heterogeneous since the dispersed SiO2 particles may provide additional nucleation sites.
Static I–V measurement indicated that the switching threshold voltage (Vth) of nanocomposite device (1.65 V) is higher than that of the AIST device (1.10 V). Increase of dynamic resistance in nanocomposite device leads to the reduction of writing current. I–V analysis also confirmed the retardation of recrystallization in AIST due to the incorporation of SiO2 and the rise of Ea is able to enhance the thermal stability of amorphous state in PCM devices.
A study on microstructure and electrical property of cerium (Ce)-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) layers for phase-change memory (PCM) application were presented. Ce doping does not suppress the resistivity of amorphous GST and the resistivity ratio of amorphous and crystalline GST remains at about 105. Further, Ce-doping escalates the recrystallization temperature (Tx) of GST from 159 to 236°C. Such a unique behavior would greatly benefit the preservation of signal contrast as well as the high-density signal storage and will not cause the increase of device writing current. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Ce doping stabilizes amorphous GST and suppresses the formation of hexagonal phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Ce doping refines the grain size of GST. Kissinger's analysis found that Tx and activation energy (Ea) of phase transition for doped-GST both increase with the increase of Ce content. Isothermal experiment found the Ce doping increases temperature for 10-yr data retention from 76 and 170°C. This is attributed to the presence of Ce solutes in GST matrix that inhibits the grain growth during recrystallization.
Static-mode electrical test on PCM device containing doped GST as the programming layer found that Ce incorporation indeed increases the switching threshold voltage (Vth). This confirmed that Ce doping effectively retards the crystallization of GST and improves the stability of amorphous GST.
Advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) have created opportunities for preservation of the reproductive potential of young males with cancer. Semen cryopreservation is possible in most adolescents with cancer regardless of age or diagnosis. Awareness by physicians is even more essential when dealing with younger populations. Theoretically, testicular tissue from prepubertal boys facing gonadotoxic treatment could be banked for many years for spermatogonial stem cell transplantation. Male germline stem cells are the only cells in postnatal mammals that undergo self-renewal and transmit genes to subsequent generations, since all female germline stem cells cease their proliferation before birth. Future possible methods of restoring fertility might include the derivation of mature sperm cells from human embryonic stem cells. Embryoid bodies were shown to support maturation of the primordial germ cells into haploid male gametes, which when injected into oocytes round off the somatic diploid chromosome complement and develop into blastocysts.
The Orai1-STIM1 constructed store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCs) have been found to exert several essential Ca2+ entry/signaling cascades, e.g., the generation of immune response in T lymphocytes. Although biochemical and novel imaging evidence appear to indicate that Orai1 and STIM1 interact with each other to achieve store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), the detailed mechanism of functional SOCE in situ has yet to be fully understood. In this study, green fluorescence protein (EGFP as donor) targeted to either the N- or C-terminal of Orai1 (wild type or ▵1-90+▵267-301 double deletion type) and mOrange (as acceptor) tagged STIM1 were used to comprise a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair within living PC12 cells. The fluorescence lifetime map and histogram/distribution of each single cell, determined by one-photon excitation fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), was used to visualize FRET and show the Orai1 homodimer and Orai1-STIM1 binding. Both the color-coded lifetime map and the distribution of EGFP-tagged Orai1 significantly changed after the administration of thapsigargin, the SOCE stimulating agent. The FRET efficiency from each experimental set was also calculated and compared using double exponential analysis. In summary, we show the detailed interactions Orai1-Orai1 and Orai1-STIM1 within intact living cells by using the FLIM-FRET technique.
Solder pots used in wave soldering are usually made using different kinds of steel. Dissolution and interfacial reactions of the Fe substrate in molten Sn-Pb and Sn-Cu solders are investigated in this study. FeSn2 phase is formed in the Sn-0.7wt%Cu/Fe couples reacted at 250, 400, and 500 °C, as well as in the Sn-37wt%Pb/Fe couples reacted at 250 and 400 °C. The activation energies of formation are 123 and 121 kJ/mol in the Sn-Cu/Fe and Sn-Pb/Fe couples, respectively. FeSn phase is the reaction product in the Sn-37wt%Pb/Fe couples reacted 500 °C. The dissolution rates of Fe in the Sn-0.7wt%Cu melt are much higher than those in-the Sn-37wt%Pb melt. The FeSn2 phase layer in the Sn-Cu/Fe couple is not as dense as that in the Sn-Pb/Fe couple and accounts for the very different dissolution rates. Detachment of the reaction FeSn2 phase into the solder matrix is observed in the Sn-Cu/Fe couples, and is a potential contaminant source in wave soldering.
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