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In this paper, we consider a nonlinear elliptic system which is an extension of the single equation derived by investigating the stationary states of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Dirichlet problem on the ball and entire space as the parameters within certain regions. In addition, a complete structure of different types of solutions for the radial case is also provided.
The impact of age on the development of depression among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) at stages before dialysis is not well known. We aimed to explore the incidence of major depression among predialysis CKD patients of successively older ages through midlife.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the longitudinal health insurance database 2005 in Taiwan. This study investigated 17,889 predialysis CKD patients who were further categorized into study (i.e. middle and old-aged) groups and comparison group aged 18–44. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) was applied for coding diseases.
The group aged 75 and over had the lowest (hazard ratio [HR] 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32–0.69) risk of developing major depression, followed by the group aged 65–74 (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.49–0.92), using the comparison group as reference. The adjusted survival curves showed significant differences in cumulative major depression-free survival between different age groups. We observed that the risk of major depression development decreases with higher age. Females were at a higher risk of major depression than males among predialyasis CKD patients.
The incidence of major depression declines with higher age in predialysis CKD patients over midlife. Among all age groups, patients aged 75 and over have the lowest risk of developing major depression. A female preponderance in major depression development is present. We suggest that depression prevention and therapy should be integrated into the standard care for predialysis CKD patients, especially for those young and female.
Obesity and hyperlipidaemia increase the risk of CVD. Some strains of probiotics have been suggested to have potential applications in cardiovascular health by lowering serum LDL-cholesterol. In this work, high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidaemia in hamsters was treated with different doses (5×108 and 2·5×109 cells/kg per d) of heat-killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 (Lr263) by oral gavage for 8 weeks. The serum lipid profile analysis showed that LDL-cholesterol and plasma malondialdehyde (P-MDA) were reduced in the GMNL-263 5×108 cells/kg per d treatment group. Total cholesterol and P-MDA were reduced in the GMNL-263 2·5×109 cells/kg per d treatment group. In terms of heart function, the GMNL-263 2·5×109 cells/kg per d treatments improved the ejection fraction from 85·71 to 91·81 % and fractional shortening from 46·93 to 57·92 % in the high-fat diet-fed hamster hearts. Moreover, the GMNL-263-treated, high-fat diet-fed hamster hearts exhibited reduced Fas-induced myocardial apoptosis and a reactivated IGF1R/PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway. Interestingly, the GMNL-263 treatments also enhanced the heat-shock protein 27 expression in a dose-dependent manner, but the mechanism for this increase remains unclear. In conclusion, supplementary heat-killed L. reuteri GMNL-263 can slightly reduce serum cholesterol. The anti-hyperlipidaemia effects of GMNL-263 may reactivate the IGF1R/PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway and reduce Fas-induced myocardial apoptosis in high-fat diet-fed hamster hearts.
This paper proposes planar antennas with quadri-polarization diversity using a pair of orthogonal linear polarizations and a pair of orthogonal circular polarizations (CP). A novel feeding network with four input ports and four output ports is presented, allowing antenna polarization diversity by selecting different input ports, which can generate right-handed CP, left-handed CP, horizontal linear polarization, and vertical linear polarization. The first design uses two square patch resonators to synthesize the four polarizations; the second design comprises four circularly polarized patches to synthesize the four polarizations with an improved axial-ratio (the ratio of orthogonal components of an E-field) bandwidth. The proposed designs do not require for embedding PIN diodes and DC-biasing circuits, making them suitable for use in higher-frequency applications where using lump elements would be difficult. The novel antennas provide potential polarization diversity features which can be used for many applications. Details of the antenna design are shown, and the measurement and simulation results are also provided to validate the proposed concept.
During 1997–2012 we conducted a nationwide camera-trapping survey and assessed the availability of prey and habitat for the clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa in Taiwan. We surveyed 1,249 camera-trap sites over 113,636 camera-trap days, from the seashore to an altitude of 3,796 m and covering various types of vegetation. No clouded leopards were photographed during 128,394 camera-trap days, including at 209 sites in other studies, confirming the presumed extinction of clouded leopards in Taiwan. Assessment of the prey base revealed altitudinal distribution patterns of prey species and prey biomass. Areas at lower altitudes and with less human encroachment and hunting supported a higher prey biomass and more of the typical prey species of clouded leopards. Habitat analysis revealed 8,523 km2 of suitable habitat but this was reduced to 6,734 km2 when adjacent areas of human encroachment were subtracted. In the absence of hunting and large mammalian carnivores the major prey of clouded leopards in Taiwan, such as Formosan macaques Macaca cyclopis, Reeves's muntjacs Muntiacus reevesi, Formosan serow Capricornis swinhoei and sambar Rusa unicolor, could become over-abundant. Thus, it is important to address the cascading effect of the disappearance of top-down predator control. Our assessment indicated that, with proper regulation of hunting, habitat restoration and corridor improvement, it may be possible to reintroduce the clouded leopard.
This study identified possible risk factors for newly diagnosed mood disorders, including depressive and bipolar disorders, in prostate cancer patients.
From 2000 to 2006, two cohorts were evaluated on the occurrence of mood disorder diagnosis and treatment. For the first cohort, data of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer was obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. As the second cohort, a cancer-free comparison group was matched for age, comorbidities, geographic region, and socioeconomic status.
Final analyses involved 12,872 men with prostate cancer and 12,872 matched patients. Increased incidence of both depressive (IRR 1.52, 95% CI 1.30–1.79, P <0.001) and bipolar disorder (IRR 1.84, 95% CI 1.25–2.74, P = 0.001) was observed among patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Multivariate matched regression models show that cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and radiotherapy treatment could be independent risk factors for developing subsequent depressive and bipolar disorders.
We observed that the risk of developing newly diagnosed depressive and bipolar disorders is higher among Taiwanese prostate cancer patients. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of increased depressive and bipolar disorders among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. A prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.
Video streaming over mobile wireless networks is getting popular in recent years. High video quality relies on large bandwidth provisioning, however, it decreases the number of supported users in wireless networks. Thus, effective bandwidth utilization becomes a crucial issue in wireless network as the bandwidth resource in wireless environment is precious and limited. The NGN quality of service mechanisms should be designed to reduce the impact of traffic burstiness on buffer management. For this reason, we propose an active dropping mechanism to deal with the effective bandwidth utilization in this paper. We use scalable video coding extension of H.264/AVC standard to provide different video quality for users of different levels. In the proposed dropping mechanism, when the network loading exceeds the threshold, the dropping mechanism starts to drop data of the enhancement layers for users of low service level. The dropping probability alters according to the change in network loading. With the dropping mechanism, the base station increases the system capability and users are able to obtain better service quality when the system is under heavy loading. We also design several methods to adjust the threshold value dynamically. By using the proposed mechanism, better quality can be provided when the network is in congestion.
This study aimed to compare hostility, impulsivity, and behavior inhibition between women with and without premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) during both luteal and follicular phases and to examine whether these variables contribute to irritability and daily functional impairment of PMDD.
PMDD was screened via the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool. A diagnosis of PMDD was confirmed by psychiatric interviewing without 2-month prospective confirmation. Sixty women in the PMDD group and 60 women in the control group completed the Chinese Version of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Short Form, Dickman's Impulsivity Inventory, and the Behavior Inhibition System Scale during the luteal and follicular phases.
We found that the PMDD group had significantly higher levels of hostility, dysfunctional impulsivity, and behavioral inhibition than the control group in both luteal and follicular phases. The PMDD group also had more premenstrual aggravation on total hostility, hostility affect, and suppressive hostility than the control group. Higher hostility, dysfunctional impulsivity, and behavior inhibition were associated with more severe irritability and functional impairment of PMDD.
Hostility, impulsivity, and behavior inhibition might contribute to irritability and functional impairment in women with PMDD.
Assessment and interventions based on these factors should be provided for women with PMDD, especially in the luteal phase.
A series of tetrahedral tetramers of 2,5-diphenyl substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds were synthesized and characterized for electron-transporting layer (ETL) in organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The multiple-branch design of the oxadiazole tetramers intends to increase the melting temperature and to generate glass phase of the low molar mass derivative such as 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD). We observed temperatures of the glass phase transition for the oxadiazole tetramer with appropriate peripheral substituents, indicative of amorphous characteristics of the molecule in spite of highly symmetrical molecular framework. The luminescence-current-voltage characteristics of multilayer OLED devices containing the oxadiazole tetramer or PBD as ETL were examined to evaluate the efficiency of our multiple-branch molecular design.
A novel type of photorefractive polymers, containing a conjugated backbone and a second order NLO chromophore, has been developed. A new polymerization method based on the Stille coupling reaction was explored to synthesize these materials. It was expected that the conjugated backbone would absorb photons in the visible region and play the triple role of charge generator, charge transporter and backbone. Several physical measurements demonstrated this expectation. Two beam coupling experiments clearly indicated an asymmetric optical energy exchange between two beams without applying an external electrical field. This is a conclusive demonstration for photorefractivity. Also, large optical gain of 5.7 cm-1 was observed under zero-field condition, which is comparable to most inorganic photorefractive materials. The versatility of the reaction makes possible the advancement of new polymer structures.
A two-step pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process, including PLD at a substrate temperature lower than 150°C and rapid-thermal-annealing (RTA) at around 550°C (30 s), has been successfully applied for growing (Pb0.97La0.03)(Zr0.66Ti0.034)0.9875O3, PLZT, thin films. Interdiffusion between layers is pronouncedly suppressed due to the presence of the SrRuO3 layer, which markedly improves the electrical properties of PLZT films. The PLZT films thus obtained exhibit large remanent polarization P,=19 µC/cm2 (with coercive force Ec=78 kV/cm), low leakage current density J11≤8 × 1O−6 A/cm2 (up to 400 kV/cm) and fatigue free characteristics.
The optimized N2O fluence is demonstrated for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of Si-rich substoichiometric silicon oxide (SiOx) films with buried Si nanocrystals. Strong room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) at 550-870 nm has been observed in SiOx films grown by PECVD under a constant SiH4 fluence of 20 sccm with an N2O fluence varying from 105 sccm to 130 sccm. A 22-nm-redshift in the central PL wavelength has been detected after annealing from 15 min to 180 min. The maximum PL irradiance is observed from the SiOx film grown at the optimal N2O fluence of 120 sccm after annealing for 30 minutes. Larger N2O fluence or longer annealing time leads to a PL band that is blue-shifted by 65 nm and 20 nm, respectively. Such a blue shift is attributed to shrinkage in the size of the Si nanocrystals with the participation of oxygen atoms from N2O incorporated within the SiOx matrix. The (220)-oriented Si nanocrystals exhibit radii ranging from 4.4 nm to 5.0 nm as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The luminescent lifetime lengthens to 52 μs as the nc-Si size increase to > 4 nm. Optimal annealing times for SiOx films prepared at different N2O fluences are also reported. A longer annealing process results in a stronger oxidation effect in SiOx films prepared at higher N2O fluences, yielding a lower PL irradiance at shorter wavelengths. In contrast, larger Si nanocrystals can be precipitated when the N2O fluence becomes lower; however, such a SiOx film usually exhibits weaker PL at longer wavelength due to a lower nc-Si density. These results indicate that a N2O/SiH4 fluence ratio of 6:1 is the optimized PECVD growth condition for the Si-rich SiO2 wherein dense Si nanocrystals are obtained after annealing.
Solder pots used in wave soldering are usually made using different kinds of steel. Dissolution and interfacial reactions of the Fe substrate in molten Sn-Pb and Sn-Cu solders are investigated in this study. FeSn2 phase is formed in the Sn-0.7wt%Cu/Fe couples reacted at 250, 400, and 500 °C, as well as in the Sn-37wt%Pb/Fe couples reacted at 250 and 400 °C. The activation energies of formation are 123 and 121 kJ/mol in the Sn-Cu/Fe and Sn-Pb/Fe couples, respectively. FeSn phase is the reaction product in the Sn-37wt%Pb/Fe couples reacted 500 °C. The dissolution rates of Fe in the Sn-0.7wt%Cu melt are much higher than those in-the Sn-37wt%Pb melt. The FeSn2 phase layer in the Sn-Cu/Fe couple is not as dense as that in the Sn-Pb/Fe couple and accounts for the very different dissolution rates. Detachment of the reaction FeSn2 phase into the solder matrix is observed in the Sn-Cu/Fe couples, and is a potential contaminant source in wave soldering.
Kennedy's disease (KD) is an X-linked recessive polyglutamine disease. Traditionally, it is a lower motor neuron syndrome with additional features such as gynecomastia and tremor. Sensory symptoms are minimal if ever present. We used multimodal evoked potential (EPs) tests to study the distribution of the involvement of the disease.
Visual, brainstem auditory, somatosensory and motor EPs were studied in six KD patients. All of them had typical presentations and had been proved genetically.
Abnormal findings were noted as follows: prolonged peak latencies of visual EPs, increased hearing threshold level, inconsistent brainstem auditory EPs, decreased amplitudes of cortical potentials of somatosensory EPs, and increased motor threshold to transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Our multimodal EP studies showed that KD involved multiple levels of the nervous system. It implies the widespread effects of the mutant androgen receptors.