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In most of video coding standards such as high efficiency video coding (HEVC), I-frame assignment is periodic even when the content change is minor, which degrades the coding efficiency. This paper proposes an I-frame assignment method based on Nash bargaining solution (NBS) in game theory to solve this problem. The encoded sequence is divided into several subsequences. Each subsequence is regarded as a game. All group of picture (GOP) in a subsequence is further divided into several sets of GOP. Each set of GOP is regarded as a player and compete for the number of I-frames. The optimal I-frame assignment is determined based on the generalized NBS. Experimental results show the proposed method outperforms HEVC by 5.21% bitrate saving.
We developed novel and polymorphic microsatellite primers for Spathoglottis plicata, a tropical and subtropical terrestrial orchid, to investigate the genetic patterns and population structure among wild populations, and also to identify the varieties and hybrids of S. plicata in horticultural industry. The 12 novel microsatellites from S. plicata were developed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based isolation of microsatellite arrays. These markers that were successfully PCR amplified exhibited polymorphisms in S. plicata. The number of alleles, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content values across loci ranged from 2.000 to 8.000, 0.000 to 0.756, 0.208 to 0.813 and 0.405 to 0.805 in total populations, respectively. The newly developed microsatellite markers exhibited variation in S. plicata. These markers can be used as a tool to further investigate the genetic diversity, conservation genetics and variety/hybrid identification of S. plicata.
Precise control is a key factor in enabling Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) to complete various underwater activities. The development of UUV control rules is mostly based on UUV dynamic models. However, such dynamic models contain unknown hydrodynamic parameters that need to be identified. This paper presents a new method, Laser Line Scanning for Hydrodynamic Parameter Identification (LSHPI), which integrates laser line scanning, decoupled dynamics, and evolutionary optimisation to identify the hydrodynamic parameters of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). In this research, laser images, seen from an on board camera's perspective and created using Open Graphics Library (OpenGL), were used to validate LSHPI's feasibility. The accuracy of the AUV positions and Euler angles obtained by the laser image-based methods were investigated for each decoupled One-Dimensional (1D) motion and the influence of other motion disturbances on the accuracy of the obtained AUV positions or Euler angles was also evaluated. In addition, the accuracy of the surge-related hydrodynamic parameters obtained by LSHPI was investigated under different motion disturbances. Based on the hydrodynamic parameter identification results under different motion disturbances, LSHPI's feasibility was successfully validated.
Anxiety disorders are prevalent yet under-recognized in late life. We examined the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a representative sample of community dwelling older adults in Hong Kong.
Data on 1,158 non-demented respondents aged 60–75 years were extracted from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity survey (HKMMS). Anxiety was assessed with the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R).
One hundred and thirty-seven respondents (11.9%, 95% CI = 10–13.7%) had common mental disorders with a CIS-R score of 12 or above. 8% (95% CI = 6.5–9.6%) had anxiety, 2.2% (95% CI = 1.3–3%) had an anxiety disorder comorbid with depressive disorder, and 1.7% (95% CI = 1–2.5%) had depression. Anxious individuals were more likely to be females (χ2 = 25.3, p < 0.001), had higher chronic physical burden (t = −9.3, p < 0.001), lower SF-12 physical functioning score (t = 9.2, p < 0.001), and poorer delayed recall (t = 2.3, p = 0.022). The risk of anxiety was higher for females (OR 2.8, 95% C.I. 1.7–4.6, p < 0.001) and those with physical illnesses (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.3–1.6, p < 0.001). The risk of anxiety disorders increased in those with disorders of cardiovascular (OR 1.9, 95% C.I. 1.2–2.9, p = 0.003), musculoskeletal (OR 2.0, 95% C.I. 1.5–2.7, p < 0.001), and genitourinary system (OR 2.0, 95% C.I. 1.3–3.2, p = 0.002).
The prevalence of anxiety disorders in Hong Kong older population was 8%. Female gender and those with poor physical health were at a greater risk of developing anxiety disorders. Our findings also suggested potential risk for early sign of memory impairment in cognitively healthy individuals with anxiety disorders.
Factors affecting quality of life (QOL) ratings for people with dementia (PWD) have been well studied, but few studies have examined the effect of residence on PWD- and caregiver-rated QOL for PWDs. We designed this study to determine the factors related to PWD- and caregiver-rated QOL in dementia as well as factors related to the discrepancy in these ratings.
For this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from a convenience sample of 106 PWD-family caregiver dyads (58 community-dwelling dyads and 48 nursing-home dyads). PWDs’ data included socio-demographic variables, QOL (assessed by the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease [QOL-AD] scale), cognition, dementia severity, depression, comorbidities, and quality of the dyadic relationship. Caregivers’ data included socio-demographic variables, depressive symptoms, and mutuality of the dyadic relationship.
QOL-AD scores were lower when rated by caregivers than by PWDs. The key factors positively related to both PWD- and caregiver-rated QOL for PWDs were fewer PWD depressive symptoms and higher quality of the PWD-caregiver relationship. The key factors related to the discrepancy in PWD- and caregiver-rated QOL in dementia were PWD residence in a nursing home and lower dementia severity, as well as higher caregiver depression, being an adult child caregiver, and lower caregiver-PWD mutuality.
Caregiver-rated QOL for PWDs and the discrepancy in rated QOL were significantly associated with PWD residence. If caregiver-rated QOL is needed, the effect of residence of PWD should be taken into consideration. Caregivers’ depressive status and mutuality with PWD must be also carefully assessed.
This study identified possible risk factors for newly diagnosed mood disorders, including depressive and bipolar disorders, in prostate cancer patients.
From 2000 to 2006, two cohorts were evaluated on the occurrence of mood disorder diagnosis and treatment. For the first cohort, data of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer was obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. As the second cohort, a cancer-free comparison group was matched for age, comorbidities, geographic region, and socioeconomic status.
Final analyses involved 12,872 men with prostate cancer and 12,872 matched patients. Increased incidence of both depressive (IRR 1.52, 95% CI 1.30–1.79, P <0.001) and bipolar disorder (IRR 1.84, 95% CI 1.25–2.74, P = 0.001) was observed among patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Multivariate matched regression models show that cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and radiotherapy treatment could be independent risk factors for developing subsequent depressive and bipolar disorders.
We observed that the risk of developing newly diagnosed depressive and bipolar disorders is higher among Taiwanese prostate cancer patients. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of increased depressive and bipolar disorders among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. A prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.
Cancer is a serious public health problem worldwide, and its relationship
with affective disorders is not clear.
To investigate alcohol- and tobacco-related cancer risk among patients
with affective disorders in a large Taiwanese cohort.
Records of newly admitted patients with affective disorders from January
1997 through December 2002 were retrieved from the Psychiatric Inpatient
Medical Claims database in Taiwan. Cancers were stratified by site and
grouped into tobacco- or alcohol-related cancers. Standardised incidence
ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the risk of cancer between those
with affective disorders and the general population.
Some 10 207 patients with bipolar disorder and 9826 with major depression
were included. The risk of cancer was higher in patients with major
depression (SIR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.85–2.19) than in those with bipolar
disorder (SIR 1.39, 95% CI 1.26–1.53). The elevated cancer risk among
individuals ever admitted to hospital for affective disorders was more
pronounced in tobacco- and/or alcohol-related cancers.
Elevated cancer risk was found in patients who had received in-patient
care for affective disorders. They require holistic approaches to
lifestyle behaviours and associated cancer risks.
A photoactivated ZnO nanomesh with precisely controlled dimensions and geometries is fabricated by using nanosphere lithography process. The nanomesh structures effectively increase the surface-to-volume ratio to improve the sensing response under the same testing gas. And the periodical nanostructures also increase the effective light path and lead to more efficient light activation for gas sensing. With the increase of the photoinduced oxygen ions by UV illumination, a distinguished sensing response is observed at room temperature. In the optimized case, the sensing response (△R/R0) of the ZnO nanomesh at the butanol concentration of 500 ppm is 97.5%, which is 4.54 times higher than the unpatterned one.
We present a simple and quick procedure for the one-pot synthesis of manganese oxides under a basic solvothermal condition in the presence of cationic surfactants acting as the template in a 2-butanol/water solution. Three-dimensional spinel-type MnO2 microspheres composed of small nanoparticles have been fabricated for the first time using our method. Their corresponding electrochemical performances in the applications of supercapacitor electrodes exhibit a good specific capacitance (SC) value of ∼190 F/g at 0.5 A/g and excellent SC retention and Coulombic efficiency of ∼100% and ∼95% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles at 1 A/g, respectively. This suggests its potential applications in energy storage devices. Further, we demonstrate that this solvothermal technique enables the morphological tuning of manganese oxides in various forms such as schists, rods, fibers, and nanoparticles. This work describes a rapid and low-cost technique to fabricate novel architectures of manganese oxides having the desired crystal phase, which will highly benefit various supercapacitor applications.
Atomic force microscopy probe-induced large-area ultrathin SiOx (x ≡ O/Si content ratio and x > 2) protrusions only a few nanometers high on a SiO2 layer were characterized by scanning photoemission microscopy (SPEM) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). SPEM images of the large-area ultrathin SiOx protrusions directly showed the surface chemical distribution and chemical state specifications. The peak intensity ratios of the XPS spectra of the large-area ultrathin SiOx protrusions provided the elemental quantification of the Si 2p core levels and Si oxidation states (such as the Si4+, Si3+, Si2+, and Si1+ species). The O/Si content ratio (x) was evidently determined by the height of the large-area ultrathin SiOx protrusions.
This study aimed to compare hostility, impulsivity, and behavior inhibition between women with and without premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) during both luteal and follicular phases and to examine whether these variables contribute to irritability and daily functional impairment of PMDD.
PMDD was screened via the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool. A diagnosis of PMDD was confirmed by psychiatric interviewing without 2-month prospective confirmation. Sixty women in the PMDD group and 60 women in the control group completed the Chinese Version of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Short Form, Dickman's Impulsivity Inventory, and the Behavior Inhibition System Scale during the luteal and follicular phases.
We found that the PMDD group had significantly higher levels of hostility, dysfunctional impulsivity, and behavioral inhibition than the control group in both luteal and follicular phases. The PMDD group also had more premenstrual aggravation on total hostility, hostility affect, and suppressive hostility than the control group. Higher hostility, dysfunctional impulsivity, and behavior inhibition were associated with more severe irritability and functional impairment of PMDD.
Hostility, impulsivity, and behavior inhibition might contribute to irritability and functional impairment in women with PMDD.
Assessment and interventions based on these factors should be provided for women with PMDD, especially in the luteal phase.
To investigate the association between cooking behaviour and long-term survival among elderly Taiwanese.
Cohort study. The duration of follow-up was the interval between the date of interview and the date of death or 31 December 2008, when censored for survivors. Information used included demographics, socio-economic status, health behaviours, cooking frequencies, physical function, cognitive function, nutrition knowledge awareness, eating out habits and food and nutrient intakes. These data were linked to death records. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to evaluate cooking frequency on death from 1999 to 2008 with related covariate adjustments.
Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, 1999–2000.
Nationally representative free-living elderly people aged ≥65 years (n 1888).
During a 10-year follow-up, 695 participants died. Those who cooked most frequently were younger, women, unmarried, less educated, non-drinkers of alcohol, non-smokers, without chewing difficulty, had spouse as dinner companion, normal cognition, who walked or shopped more than twice weekly, who ate less meat and more vegetables. Highly frequent cooking (>5 times/week, compared with never) predicted survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 0·47; 95 % CI, 0·36, 0·61); with adjustment for physical function, cognitive function, nutrition knowledge awareness and other covariates, HR was 0·59 (95 % CI, 0·41, 0·86). Women benefited more from cooking more frequently than did men, with decreased HR, 51 % v. 24 %, when most was compared with least. A 2-year delay in the assessment of survivorship led to similar findings.
Cooking behaviour favourably predicts survivorship. Highly frequent cooking may favour women more than men.
Although teachers are the key participants in health-promoting schools (HPS) programme delivery, it is still unknown whether teachers are appropriate health information resources and role models for students with respect to healthy diets. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of implementing HPS programmes on teachers’ nutrition knowledge and diets.
One HPS programme aiming at dietary intervention (HP-D) and one HPS not aiming at dietary intervention (HP-ND) were selected, along with two non-health-promoting (NHP) schools matched for school size and urbanization level with the two HPS. All 361 teachers in the four schools were invited to participate, yielding a 78·4 % overall valid response rate. A structured, self-reported questionnaire was administered, with regression models used for statistical analysis.
Teachers in the HP-D group had a mean score of 21·1 on a range of 0–30 for nutrition knowledge, which was significantly higher than the mean scores of 18·5 in the HP-ND group and 19·1 in the NHP group (P < 0·001). Better dietary behaviours were also observed among HP-D teachers. Further, being a ‘health education’ course instructor was associated with significantly higher scores on nutrition knowledge (β = 2·6, P < 0·001) and vegetable and fruit consumption (β = 1·4, P = 0·02) in the HP-D group than in the NHP group. The HP-ND and NHP groups exhibited similar patterns of non-significant differences compared with the HP-D group.
Implementation of a coordinated HPS framework on nutrition and diet was positively correlated with schoolteachers’ nutrition knowledge and dietary intake.