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A radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique and subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 600, 700, 800, and 900 °C were implemented to grow high-quality Ga-doped MgxZn1-xO (GMZO) epi-layers. The GMZO films were deposited using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system and a 4 inch ZnO/MgO/Ga2O3 (75/20/5 wt %) target. The Hall results, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmittance were determined and are reported in this paper. The Hall results indicated that the increase in mobility was likely caused by the improved crystallization in the GMZO films after thermal annealing. The XRD results revealed that MgxZn1-xO (111) and MgO2 (200) peaks were obtained in the GMZO films. The absorption edges of the as-grown and annealed GMZO films shifted toward the short wavelength of 373 nm at a transmittance of 90%. According to these results, GMZO films are feasible for forming transparent contact layers for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.
To assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the quantitative FFQ used in the Tzu Chi Health Study (TCHS).
The reproducibility was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with the 2-year follow-up FFQ. The validity was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with 3 d dietary records and biomarkers (serum folate and vitamin B12). Median comparison, cross-classification and Spearman correlation with and without energy adjustment and deattenuation for day-to-day variation were assessed.
TCHS is a prospective cohort containing a high proportion of true vegetarians and part-time vegetarians (regularly consuming a vegetarian diet without completely avoiding meat).
Subsets of 103, seventy-eight and 1528 TCHS participants were included in the reproducibility, dietary record-validity and biomarker-validity studies, respectively.
Correlations assessing the reproducibility for repeat administrations of the FFQ were in the range of 0·46–0·65 for macronutrients and 0·35–0·67 for micronutrients; the average same quartile agreement was 40%. The correlation between FFQ and biomarkers was 0·41 for both vitamin B12 and folate. Moderate to good correlations between the baseline FFQ and dietary records were found for energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated and monounsaturated fat, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin A, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe and Zn (average crude correlation: 0·47 (range: 0·37–0·66); average energy-adjusted correlation: 0·43 (range: 0·38–0·55); average energy-adjusted deattenuated correlation: 0·50 (range: 0·44–0·66)) with same quartile agreement rate of 39% (range: 35–45%), while misclassification to the extreme quartile was rare (average: 4% (range: 0–6%)).
The FFQ is a reliable and valid tool to rank relative intake of major nutrients for TCHS participants.
Investigation of customer participation in new product development (NPD) performance has yielded conflicting results. This study explores the idea that intensive customer participation is not always better. Instead, the usefulness of customer participation in NPD is determined by the fit between product innovativeness and customer participation as information providers and as co-developers. An empirical study of 196 NPD projects of Taiwanese high-tech firms is analyzed by structural equation modeling. The findings show that product innovativeness negatively moderates the impact of customer participation as information providers on NPD outcome. Thus, the greater the involvement of customer participation as information providers in radical innovation projects, the lower the NPD outcome. Moreover, our results also indicate that product innovativeness positively affects the relationship between customer participation as a co-developer and NPD outcome, which suggest that the more customer participation as a co-developer in a radical innovation project, the better the NPD outcome.
In this paper, we report that the experimental procedures for the preparation of conductive color powders that were aggregated from color pigment and conductive materials. We first modified the pigment and make the particles surface to have charges (ex: positive) and modified another conductive materials like ITO、Au、Ag particles or conductive polymer to be opposite charges (ex: negative). Then these two kinds of charge particles will aggregate in appropriate processing by static electricity and form a powder. After annealing treatment, the conductive color powder with ITO particles reveals good thermal stability and lower surface resistivity.
An AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT grown on Si substrate with Ge/GexSi1−x buffer is demonstrated. The Ge/GexSi1−x metamorphic buffer layer used in this structure was only 1.0 μgm thick. The electron mobility in the In0.18Ga0.82 As channel of the HEMT sample was 3,550 cm2/Vs. After fabrication, the HEMT device demonstrated a saturation current of 150 mA/mm and a maximum transconductance of 155 mS/mm. The well behaved characteristics of the HEMT device on the Si substrate are believed to be due to the very thin buffer layer achieved and the lack of the antiphase boundaries (APBs) formation and Ge diffusion into the GaAs layers.
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) has commonly been used to deliver carotenoids to cells but the use of THF is associated with cytotoxicity and low uptake efficiency of carotenoids. Here, we used fetal bovine serum (FBS) as the delivery vehicle for lycopene in comparison with THF, THF containing 0·0025 % butylated hydroxytoluene (THF/BHT), methyl-β-cyclodextrin (M-β-CD) and micelles in two human prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC-3. Lycopene (10 mm) solubilized in THF/BHT and then diluted in FBS at ratios of 5 and 10 gave the highest lycopene uptake in DU145 cells. Using a dilution factor of 10, we found that lycopene (10 μm) carried in FBS in a cell-free system led to significantly less loss of lycopene than in THF, THF/BHT and M-β-CD within 24 h of incubation. Lycopene solubilized in micelles was more stable than that in FBS within 24 h, but the micelle itself led to marked cytotoxicity to DU145 cells. Lycopene at 10 μm in FBS led to significantly higher uptake of lycopene in both cell lines than that in THF, THF/BHT or M-β-CD within 24 h of incubation. When FBS was replaced with lipoprotein-deficient serum, the uptake of lycopene by DU145 cells was markedly decreased and was not significantly different from that of THF or THF/BHT. These results demonstrate that FBS is superior to THF, THF/BHT, M-β-CD and micelles as a delivery vehicle for lycopene in prostate cell lines and that the lipoprotein of FBS is likely responsible for the improved stability and cellular uptake of lycopene.
The LaNiO3 (LNO) thin films were deposited on Si substrate by rf magnetron sputtering. The interface and electrical properties of LNO/Si contacts were investigated. For the deposition at room temperature, an amorphous LNO film with a clean interface was formed on the Si. However, a thin silicon oxide layer of approximately 2.5 nm was formed at the interface between LNO and Si after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at temperatures ≥450 °C. On the other hand, a highly (100)-textured LNO film along with an interfacial oxide layer of approximately 6.0 nm was obtained for the deposition at 400–450 °C. Nevertheless, if an ion beam etching was applied prior to the high temperature deposition at 400–450 °C, a clean interface at the interface could be obtained for the LNO/Si contacts. Moreover, crystallites with (111) planes grown epitaxially along the (111) planes of Si were found in the LNO films. All the contacts had shown good current–voltage characteristics of a Schottky diode with a barrier height of 0.69–0.78 eV for the LNO/n-Si contacts and 0.60–0.67 eV for the LNO/p-Si contacts, and the barrier height increased with the thickening of interfacial oxide layer. From the measurement of capacitance (C) under reverse bias (Vr) of the contacts made with LNO deposited on the ion-etched Si substrates, a linear relation was observed in the plot of C−2 against Vr except a deviation of linearity in the low-bias part of the curve. This deviation is most likely due to the segregation and inward diffusion of La and Ni near the interface of LNO/Si contacts. Nevertheless, the barrier heights evaluated from an extrapolation of linear part of the plots are reasonably consistent with those obtained from the I–V measurement.
A series of tetrahedral tetramers of 2,5-diphenyl substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds were synthesized and characterized for electron-transporting layer (ETL) in organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The multiple-branch design of the oxadiazole tetramers intends to increase the melting temperature and to generate glass phase of the low molar mass derivative such as 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD). We observed temperatures of the glass phase transition for the oxadiazole tetramer with appropriate peripheral substituents, indicative of amorphous characteristics of the molecule in spite of highly symmetrical molecular framework. The luminescence-current-voltage characteristics of multilayer OLED devices containing the oxadiazole tetramer or PBD as ETL were examined to evaluate the efficiency of our multiple-branch molecular design.
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