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Most vibration-based energy harvesters, including piezoelectric harvester system, perform efficiently at only its resonant frequency as linear resonators, usually at very high frequency which are out of the range of frequency of interest. In real life applications, these linear resonators are impractical since real ambient vibrations are simply having varying lower frequencies. Hence, design a tuneable vibration energy harvester at a lower and useful frequency range of interest are essential in allowing promising energy output to meet intended power input at a more practical approach. In this paper, the piezoelectric voltage energy harvester (PVEH) was designed with a flexible fixture with the aim to reduce its first fundamental natural frequency. Two thickness of elastic fixtures were applied to generate power on PVEH. Three experimental techniques were used to measure the vibration characteristics of PVEH. First, the full-field optical technique, amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI) measured simultaneously the resonant frequencies and mode shapes. This is followed by the pointwise measurement system, laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) in which the resonant frequencies were measured by dynamic signal swept-sine analysis. The resonant frequencies and anti-resonant frequencies were also obtained by impedance analysis. The results obtained from experimental measurements were compared with finite element numerical calculation. It is found that the boundary conditions under the elastic fixtures can effectively reduce the resonant frequency of the PVEH with a reasonable voltage output. The fundamental natural frequency of PVEH with the thickness of 0.58-mm elastic fixture is reduced to 37 Hz maintaining at 7.1 volts (1.2 mW), in comparison with the natural frequency on cantilevered PVEH at 78 Hz that produces 7.7 volts (6.5 mW).
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
In this study, a data-driven method for the construction of a reduced-order model (ROM) for complex flows is proposed. The method uses the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes as the orthogonal basis and the dynamic mode decomposition method to obtain linear equations for the temporal evolution coefficients of the modes. This method eliminates the need for the governing equations of the flows involved, and therefore saves the effort of deriving the projected equations and proving their consistency, convergence and stability, as required by the conventional Galerkin projection method, which has been successfully applied to incompressible flows but is hard to extend to compressible flows. Using a sparsity-promoting algorithm, the dimensionality of the ROM is further reduced to a minimum. The ROMs of the natural and bypass transitions of supersonic boundary layers at
are constructed by the proposed data-driven method. The temporal evolution of the POD modes shows good agreement with that obtained by direct numerical simulations in both cases.
In this work, hierarchical mesoporous Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF microspheres have been prepared by hydrothermal, sulfurization, and subsequent calcination process. The effect of different sulfurization time on the morphology and capacitance of composites was tested. The high electrochemical performance of (Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF) composite was obtained when the sulfurization time was 3 h (Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF-3h), where a specific capacitance of 627.7 F/g at 0.25 A/g and excellent rate capability of about 97.8% capacitance retention at 2 A/g after 4000 cycles were achieved. Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor fabricated by (Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF-3h) composite and activated carbon (AC) as the positive and the negative electrodes, respectively, showed a high energy density of 75.96 W h/kg at a power density of 362.49 W/kg with a remarkable cycle stability performance of 91.2% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. This incredible electrochemical behavior illustrates that the hierarchical mesoporous Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/N-3h microsphere electrodes are promising electrode materials for application in high-performance supercapacitors.
Geochronological, major and trace element, and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic data are reported for the monzonitic rocks of the Fushan pluton in the Taihang Mountains, central North China Craton, in order to investigate their sources, petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Zircon U–Pb dating results reveal that the Fushan pluton was emplaced during the Early Cretaceous (∼126–124 Ma). The monzonites and quartz monzonites are mainly characterized by calc-alkaline and magnesian features and display light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and flat heavy REE (HREE) patterns with slightly positive Eu anomalies. They have similar whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70653–0.70819), εNd(t) values (−13.6 to −18.6) and zircon εHf(t) values (−21.8 to −17.3). The primary magma of the Fushan pluton was derived from the partial melting of a spinel-facies amphibole-bearing ancient enriched lithospheric mantle. The monzonitic rocks also have high Ba–Sr and low Y and Yb contents, with high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios. These geochemical features of monzonitic rocks are not only inherited from the magma source but also significantly enhanced by crystal fractionation during magmatic evolution; e.g. hornblende fractionation increased the Ba–Sr concentrations and Sr/Y ratios. During the Early Cretaceous, the slab sinking and roll-back of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate could have created an ancient big mantle wedge beneath East Asia and induced a lithospheric extensional process in the central North China Craton within an intracontinental setting.
The NE–NNE-trending Yuan-Ma Basin in central South China, an overprinted basin, is important for understanding the transition in Mesozoic intracontinental deformation in South China from compressional to extensional settings. A detailed sedimentary and structural cross-section across the basin reveals the Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic black coal-bearing shale, greyish-green sandstone and brick-red claystone, and the Middle Jurassic brick-red sandstone, pebbly sandstone and conglomerate in the eastern segment of the basin. The Lower Cretaceous brick-red coarse sandstone, pebbly sandstone and siltstone occurred in the western and central segments, as well as fault breccia and Lower Cretaceous sandstone at the western margin of the basin. Detrital zircon U–Pb dating by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry shows that the magmatic and metamorphic zircons yield significant age clusters at 900–700, 500–350 and 300–150 Ma, as well a minor age cluster at 120–100 Ma. Synthesizing the stratigraphic sequences, structures, isotopic dating results and palaeocurrent data, we infer that the Yuan-Ma Basin experienced three evolutionary stages and tectonic settings: (1) during Late Triassic – Early Jurassic time, the Yuan-Ma Basin was related to the diachronous progressive intracontinental deformation as a result of the early Mesozoic Xuefeng intracontinental orogeny in South China; (2) during Middle–Late Jurassic time, the Yuan-Ma Basin was related to intracontinental compression in South China; and (3) during late Early Cretaceous time, the Yuan-Ma Basin was constrained by the intracontinental extension that occurred in eastern China. These three stages, a result of various tectonic regimes, caused the intracontinental deformation that was controlled by the evolution of the continents and their margins.
Associations have been shown between father’s absence and menarcheal age, but most studies have focused on absence resulting from divorce, abandonment or death. Little research has been conducted to evaluate the effect on menarcheal age of paternal absence through migrant work. In a sample of 400 middle school students, this study examined the association between paternal migrant work and menarcheal age against a backdrop of extensive rural-to-urban migration in China. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire, including social-demographic characteristics, aspects of family relationships, information about father’s migrant work and age at menarche. After adjusting for BMI, parent marital status and perceived relationship with mother, lower self-perceived quality of father–daughter relationship (both ‘father present, relationship poor’ and ‘father absent, relationship poor’) and lower frequency of contact with the father were associated with higher odds for early menarche. These findings suggest that the assumption that father’s absence for work influences the timing of menarche needs to be examined in the context of the quality of the father–daughter relationship and paternal care, which appear to play a critical role in the timing of menarche. These findings also emphasize the importance of enhancing paternal involvement and improving father–daughter relationships in the development of appropriate reproductive strategy in daughters.
Human innate immune plays an essential role in the spontaneous clearance of acute infection and therapy of HCV. We investigated whether the SNPs in retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor family were associated with HCV spontaneous clearance and response to treatment. To evaluate the clinical value of DDX58 rs3824456, rs10813831 and rs10738889 genotypes on HCV spontaneous clearance and treatment response in Chinese Han population, we genotyped 1001 HCV persistent infectors, 599 participants with HCV natural clearance and 354 patients with PEGylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG IFN-α/RBV) treatment. People carrying rs10813831-G allele genotype were more liable to achieve spontaneous clearance than the carriage of the T allele (dominant model: adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08–1.71, P = 0.008). In rs10738889, the rate of persistent infection was significantly lower in patients with the TC genotype compared to those with TT genotype (dominant model: adjusted OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.06–1.74, P = 0.015). Multivariate stepwise analysis indicated that rs10738889, age, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were independent predictors for HCV spontaneous clearance. However, there were no significant differences in the three selection SNPs between the non-SVR group and the SVR group. These results suggest the DDX58 rs10813831 and rs10738889 are associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV, which may be identified as a predictive marker in the Chinese Han population of HCV.
This paper presents a lower-limb exoskeleton that is actuated by pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs). This exoskeleton system is composed of the mechanical structures, a treadmill, and a weight support system. With the cooperative work of the three parts, the system aims to assist either the elderly for muscle strengthening by conducting walking activities or the stroke patients during a rehabilitation training program. A mechanism is developed to separate the PMAs from the wearer’s legs to reduce the subject’s physical exertion. Furthermore, considering the difficulty in the modeling of proposed PMAs-driven exoskeleton, a safe and model-free control strategy called proxy-based sliding mode control (PSMC) is used to ensure proper control of the exoskeleton. However, the favorable performances are strongly dependent on the appropriate control parameters, which may be difficult to obtain with blind tuning. Therefore, we propose a global parameters optimization algorithm called switch-mode firefly algorithm (SMFA) to automatically calculate the pre-defined object function and attain the most applicable parameters. Experimental studies are conducted, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
There is limited experience about transcatheter closure of doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defects with Amplatzer ductal occluder.
Between March, 2015 and July, 2017, a total of 22 patients with doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defects received transcatheter closure using Amplatzer ductal occluder and underwent clinical follow-up for at least 6 months.
Device implantation was finally successful in 21 (95.4%) patients despite failed occlusion in one patient and intra-procedural replacement of unsuitable occluders in four (19.0%) patients. In mean 12.3 months of follow-up, there were no major complications (death, aortic valve or sinus rupture, device dislocation or embolisation, grade 2 new-onset aortic regurgitation, etc.), resulting in clinical occlusion success of 95.4%. Mechanical haemolysis occurred in one patient and resolved with medication. Residual shunt was observed in 11 (52.4%) patients (9 mild, 2 moderate-severe) post-procedurally, 14 (66.7%) patients (12 mild, 2 moderate-severe) in hospital stay, and 2 (9.5%) patients (2 mild, 0 moderate-severe) at the last follow-up. Device-induced new-onset aortic regurgitation was found in nine (42.8%) patients (9 mild, 0 moderate-severe) post-procedurally and in hospital stay, which was resolved in two (9.5%) patients and unchanged in seven (33.3%) patients at the last follow-up. Another four (19.0%) patients newly developed mild aortic regurgitation during follow-up.
Transcatheter closure of doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defects with Amplatzer ductal occluder is technically feasible in the selected patients. However, further study is needed to confirm its long-term clinical outcomes.
We provide explicit and unified formulas for the cocycles of all degrees on the normalized bar resolutions of finite abelian groups. This is achieved by constructing a chain map from the normalized bar resolution to a Koszul-like resolution for any given finite abelian group. With a help of the obtained cocycle formulas, we determine all the braided linear Gr-categories and compute the Dijkgraaf–Witten Invariants of the n-torus for all n.
Severe fever with thrombocytopaenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease discovered in 2010 and has a case fatality as high as 30%. We intended to study the immune protection conferred by SFTS with natural infection. We collected and analysed 4-year follow-up data to study the characteristics of neutralising antibodies against SFTS virus (SFTSV). The 50% plaque reduction neutralisation test was used for the detection of neutralising antibodies against SFTSV. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) and proportions of patients with a protective titre were analysed, and the persistence of protection was predicted. The titre of antibodies declined yearly in the 4-year study period. Approximately 3 months after infection, the GMT was 143 (95% confidence interval (CI): 89–231), and 100% of patients had a protective titre. In the fourth year, the GMT declined to 53 (95% CI: 37–76), and 95% of patients had a protective titre. The titre was higher in females than in males. On average, the protection offered by neutralising antibodies against SFTSV could last as long as 9 years. The durations of protection were different for different initial titres. The characteristics of neutralising antibodies can be used as a reference for the vaccination doses and schedules of forthcoming vaccines.
Few studies have examined the association of various types of Fe with colorectal cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate different forms and sources of Fe in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. A total of 2138 patients with colorectal cancer and 2144 sex- and age-matched (5-year interval) controls were recruited from July 2010 to November 2017. Dietary information was assessed by face-to-face interviews using a validated FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI on models. Intake of Fe from plants and Fe from white meat were inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, while haem Fe and Fe from red meat were positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. The multivariable OR for the highest quartile v. the lowest quartile were 0·72 (95 % CI 0·59, 0·87, Ptrend<0·001) for Fe from plants, 0·54 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·66, Ptrend<0·001) for Fe from white meat, 1·26 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·53, Ptrend=0·005) for haem Fe and 1·83 (95 % CI 1·49, 2·24, Ptrend<0·001) for Fe from red meat intake, respectively. However, no significant association was found between the consumption of total dietary Fe, non-haem Fe, Fe from meat and colorectal cancer risk. This study showed that lower intake of Fe from plants and white meat, as well as higher intake of haem Fe and Fe from red meat, were associated with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.
In this paper, we consider a nonlinear elliptic system which is an extension of the single equation derived by investigating the stationary states of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Dirichlet problem on the ball and entire space as the parameters within certain regions. In addition, a complete structure of different types of solutions for the radial case is also provided.
Health system reform is considered a tough issue worldwide. Great efforts have been made toward health system building and strengthening. However, it is still unclear which health system is appropriate for different countries. This study aimed to systematically compare the characteristics of the establishment periods between eighty-eight counties of National Health Service (NHS) and Social Health Insurance (SHI).
Forty-eight NHS countries and forty SHI countries with data availability were selected. The establishment years of current health systems and other eighteen indicators in economics, society, population and health during establishment periods were collected. Comparison between NHS and SHI was conducted by descriptive analysis of every indicator.
Most NHS countries were established during the cold war, while SHI had been set up since the cold war ended. The median of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, urbanization rate and aging rate of SHI were USD 1535 in current dollars, 58.2 percent and 9.8 percent, respectively; compared with USD 1387, 41.2 percent and 4.7 percent, respectively of NHS. NHS countries had a smaller total population, lower mortality rate and elderly dependency ratio, while the birth rate and children's dependency ratio were higher. SHI countries showed a higher life expectancy and lower mortality rate in infants and children. NHS countries spent less in total health expenditure and a lower proportion of GDP. The median health expenditure per capita of SHI and NHS were USD 188 and USD 131 in current dollars, respectively. There was little difference among maternal mortality rates, and public and private health expenditure proportions.
NHS and SHI countries had different characteristics during the health system establishment periods. NHS was established earlier than SHI overall, so that SHI revealed higher levels in economic and social development. Health outcomes of NHS countries were slightly lower than SHI ones, while health expenditure was more in SHI countries. Specific social, economic, demographic and health conditions should be considered when countries are building their own health systems.
This study investigated the effect of pre-exercise α-lactalbumin ingestion on subsequent endurance exercise performance, muscle pain and mood states. In a two-stage cross-over counterbalance design, eleven male endurance runners (age: 31 (se 2) years, height: 169·5 (se 4·4) cm, weight: 63·6 (se 5·1) kg, V̇O2max: 58·8 (se 6·3) ml/kg per min) consumed two solutions (carbohydrate+α-lactalbumin, CA; carbohydrate+whey protein isolate, CW) 2 h before a self-paced 21-km run. Creatine kinase, IL-6, muscle pain, pressure pain threshold (PPT) and mood states were assessed 2 h before exercise, immediately before exercise (Pre-ex0) and immediately after exercise (Post-ex0). No difference was found in 21-km running performance between two trials (CA v. CW: 115·85 (se 5·20) v. 118·85 (se 5·51) min, P=0·48). Compared with CW, CA led to higher PPT at Pre-ex0 (41·77 (se 2·27) v. 35·56 (se 2·10) N/cm2, P<0·01) and Post-ex0 (38·76 (se 3·23) v. 35·30 (se 3·55) N/cm2, P=0·047). Compared with CW, CA reduced the feeling of fatigue at Post-ex0 (P<0·01); CA also reduced salivary cortisol levels at Post-ex0 (0·72 (se 0·07) v. 0·83 (se 0·13) ng/ml, P<0·01). In conclusion, the ingestion of α-lactalbumin did not improve the 21-km time-trial performance. However, compared with the pre-exercise ingestion of whey protein, that of α-lactalbumin led to superior results during similar levels of endurance exercise: it elevated PPT and reduced the feeling of fatigue and the cortisol levels.