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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Interactions at magnetic interfaces are central to the operation of virtually all magnetic heterostructures. When the interface is between two magnetic materials, the exchange interaction between spins at the interface is often a dominant force, and can dramatically change the magnetic response of the overall heterostructure. In ferromagnet (FM)/antiferromagnet (AFM) heterostructures, this interaction is often referred to as exchange anisotropy or bias and it has been widely used over the past decade in a wide array of applications such as magnetic recording heads, MRAMs, etc. The powerful implications of interactions between an AFM and a FM have been realized in a wide range of thin film heterostructure with both metallic and oxide constituents. There is, however, much less work on oxide-oxide FM/AFM systems. On the other hand, the development and understanding of functional oxide materials, especially multifunctional materials like BiFeO3 (BFO), have piqued the interest of researchers worldwide with the promise of coupling between order parameters such as ferroelectricity and antiferromagnetism. Recent research suggests that there is exchange coupling and anisotropy between the metallic ferromagnet Co0.9Fe0.1 (CoFe) and the multiferroic, antiferromagnet BFO, showing the possibility to create highly desirable multifunctional systems with new possibilities for device design. Such a result provides the driving force to create multifunctional oxide-oxide systems where exchange interactions could be much stronger then in metal/oxide structures due the added epitaxial nature of the interface. In this study, we use La0.7Sr0.3MnO3(LSMO)/BFO thin film heterostructures as a model system to explore the exchange interaction at an oxide interface. The heterostructures are grown on various vicinal cuts of SrTiO3 single crystal substrates using laser MBE. Structural analysis using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry reveals high quality films with the pristine interfaces required for exchange coupling. First results from photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) studies reveal that the magnetic LSMO domain structure mimics underneath ferroelectric BFO domain structure, i..e, it is strongly pinned by the underlying AFM structure. The coupling behavior is being characterized by magnetic measurements (SQUID, VSM), which shows a strong enhancement in the coercivity of the LSMO layer, suggesting the existence of exchange bias coupling. We are probing the strength of this coupling using a combination of careful laser MBE growth experiments and physical property measurements. In this paper, we will report results of experiments in which the LSMO layer has been grown by laser MBE in the thickness range of 2-50nm on a  BFO layer.
On February 6, 2018, a magnitude 6.2 earthquake struck Hualien, Taiwan. Over 150 patients crammed into the emergency department of nearby hospitals within two hours. Mass casualty incident (MCI) management was activated. During the recovery phase, little attention was paid to the mental health of hospital staff.
To analyze the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among healthcare providers (HCPs) and explore the possible risk factors.
63 HCPs in the emergency department of the single tertiary hospital near the epicenter were included. The Chinese version of the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS-C) was used to evaluate the prevalence of PTSD. Questionnaires were sent to explore the possible contributing factors.
The average age of the HCPs was 32.7 years (30.3 years for nurses; 40.4 years for physicians). The prevalence of PTSD was 3.2% eight months after the incident. The mean DTS-C score was 8.9/136. Nurses had a higher score than physicians (10.8 and 4.7). HCPs with 6-10 years working experience had the highest score (14.2), while those with less than 3 years experience had the lowest (4.8).
We found HCPs had a lower prevalence of PTSD compared with earthquake survivors (Chou 2007), and physicians had longer working years and lower DTS-C scores. The professional training may help HCPs going through psychological impacts during the disaster. HCPs with 6-10 years of experience in the emergency department were found to have a higher risk of developing PTSD. Most of them were taking the responsibility of a team leader during the MCI, which may cause significant stress to these staff. Adequate training regarding MCI management could help to relieve tension and frustration, hoping to prevent the development of PTSD. Based on our study, PTSD among HCPs is an ignored issue, and we should follow-up HCPs’ psychological condition in the future.
In this work, a novel shape-stabilized phase change material, composed of n-octadecane, expanded graphite (EG), and sodium chloride (NaCl), was prepared by a convenient method. In the composite, EG was used as the matrix material and NaCl served as the nucleating agent. Effects of the additional amount of NaCl on the thermal properties of the composite were investigated by DSC and TG. The melting and crystallization enthalpies of the composite are −160.23 J/g and 162.80 J/g, respectively; the supercooling degree of the composite decreased to 3.77 °C when compared to 7.58 °C of the pure n-octadecane. Furthermore, the thermal cycling performances became better, and the thermal decomposition temperature improved to 150 °C. The composite exhibited high latent heat, low supercooling degree, good thermal cycling performance, and enhanced thermal stability, making it a potential material for the thermal energy storage application in the field of thermal regulation.
Novel microencapsulated n-octadecane with natural silk fibroin (SF) shell attached with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on its surface was synthesized in oil-in-water emulsion via a self-assembly method. No additional reductant was used in the in situ preparation of AgNPs due to the inherent reduction property of tyrosine (Tyr) residues in SF. The microstructures and particle sizes of the resultant microcapsules were investigated by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer. The resulting microcapsules exhibited a regular spherical morphology with a 4–5 μm narrow diameter distribution range. And the AgNPs attached to the surface exhibited an even distribution. According to the analytical results of DSC, TGA, and infrared system, the SF-AgNPs microcapsule presents enhanced thermal stability and obvious thermal regulation properties. In addition, it was found that the SF-AgNP microcapsule also exhibited a good antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The SF-AgNPs microcapsule synthesized in this study could be a potential candidate for thermal regulation and healthcare applications.
In situ U–Pb and Hf analyses were used for crustal zircon xenocrysts from Triassic kimberlites exposed in the Rangnim Massif of North Korea to identify components of the basement hidden in the deep crust of the Rangnim Massif and to clarify the crustal evolution of the massif. The U–Pb age spectrum of the zircons has a prominent population at 1.9–1.8 Ga and a lack of Archaean ages. The data indicate that the deep crust and basement beneath the Rangnim Massif are predominantly of Palaeoproterozoic age, consistent with the ages of widely exposed Palaeoproterozoic granitic rocks. In situ zircon Hf isotope data show that most of the Palaeoproterozoic zircon xenocrysts have negative ϵHf(t) values (−9.7 to +0.7) with an average Hf model age of 2.86 ± 0.02 Ga (2σ), which suggests that the Palaeoproterozoic basement was not juvenile but derived from the reworking of Archaean rocks. Considering the existence of Archaean remanent material in the Rangnim Massif and their juvenile features, a strong crustal reworking event is indicated at 1.9–1.8 Ga, during which time the pre-existing Archaean basement was exhausted and replaced by a newly formed Palaeoproterozoic basement. These features suggest that the Rangnim Massif constitutes the eastern extension of the Palaeoproterozoic Liao–Ji Belt of the North China Craton instead of the Archaean Liaonan Block as previously thought. A huge Palaeoproterozoic orogen may exist in the eastern margin of the Sino-Korean Craton.
Detailed structural, volcanic, and sedimentary investigations of the crustal response to the emplacement of the Middle–Late Permian Emeishan large igneous province show that a rifting system developed prior to the main stage of flood basalt eruptions, in the form of sedimentary breccias, clastic sedimentary deposits and mafic hydromagmatic units. Detrital zircon grains from sandstones yield ~750–800 Ma LA-ICP-MS 206Pb/238U age clusters, showing that material was sourced from the Yangtze crystalline basement. Gabbros and pegmatites intruded along the normal faults of the rift system yield zircon ages of 264–260 Ma, and thus constrain the timing of rifting. N–S-trending rift zones developed along the western flank of the Pan-Xi palaeo-uplift, with NE–SW- and NNE–SSW-trending rifts on the eastern side and along the western and eastern margins of the Yangtze Block. The rifting progressed in pulses, with an initial phase of normal faulting followed by rapid deposition of breccias. Later there was lower-energy deposition of sandstone, with accompanying rhyolitic eruptions. This was followed by low-energy sedimentation of mudstones and dolomites, with accompanying hydromagmatic deposits. Rift system formation was constrained by a combination of far- and near-field tectonic stresses due to plate motions and lithospheric interaction with initial Emeishan volcanism.
Sedative–hypnotic medication use has been related to severe adverse events and risks. This study investigated the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the use of sedatives and hypnotics among community-dwelling elderly persons aged 65 years and over in Taiwan.
A representative sample of community-dwelling adults was recruited. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected for assessing physical, mental, and cognitive functioning and disorders. Sedatives and hypnotics use was determined via both self-reporting and prescription records. Logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate associations between sedative–hypnotic use and demographic and health status.
Among the 3,978 participants aged 65 years and over, the rate of sedative–hypnotic use was 19.7% (n = 785). 4.5% (n = 35) of users reported sedative–hypnotic use without a doctor's prescription. Several sociodemographic characteristics were positively associated with sedative and hypnotic use, including older age, female gender, higher education level, married status, unemployment, and current alcohol consumption. Comorbid chronic and cardiovascular diseases, mental illness, depression, pain, and sleep problems also increased the likelihood of sedative–hypnotic use.
This study is one of the largest pioneer studies to date to survey sedatives–hypnotics use among community-dwelling elderly. One in five community-dwelling older adults reported sedative–hypnotic drugs use in Taiwan, and about 5% of sedative and/or hypnotics usage was without a doctor's prescription. Findings could be helpful for drug-use safety interventions to identify target geriatric patients who are in general at higher risk of downstream harm associated with sedative–hypnotic use in geriatric patients.
The ZnO/g-C3N4 binary heterostructures were formed by two steps, then the firm connection between ZnO NRs and lamellar g-C3N4 was characterized through powder XRD, FESEM with EDS, TEM, XPS, and Thermogravimetric analysis. Then the gas sensing performances of ZnO/g-C3N4 nanoheterostructures were analyzed systematically by using ethanol as a molecular probe. The results revealed that the fabricated compositive sensor not only exhibited quick response/recovery characteristics in the whole operating temperature (OT) range of 200–300 °C but also got a maximum response of 14.29 toward 100 ppm of ethanol at the optimal OT of only 260 °C. Moreover, such heterostructures also demonstrated good selectivity and superb reproducibility to acetone among all the tested toxic gases, especially higher response and faster response–recovery speeds than the pristine ZnO sensor. The above ZnO/g-C3N4 heterostructures may also supply other novel applications in the aspects of lithium-ion batteries, photocatalysis, optical devices, and so on.
To optimise patients’ outcomes and gain insight into transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 treatment-naive patients in Beijing, the prevalence of TDR was assessed. Demographic and clinical data of 1241 treatment-naive patients diagnosed between April 2014 and February 2015 were collected. TDR was defined using the Stanford University HIV drug resistance mutations database. The risk factors were evaluated by multi-logistic regression analysis. Among 932 successfully amplified cases, most were male (96.78%) and infected through men having sex with men (91.74%). Genotype were CRF01_AE (56.44%), B (20.60%), CRF07_BC (19.96%), C (1.61%) and other genotypes (1.39%). The overall prevalence of TDR was 6.12%. Most frequent mutations occurred in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) (3.11%), followed by protease inhibitors (PIs) (2.25%) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) (1.32%). Furthermore, HIV-1 genotype was associated with high risk of resistance, in which genotype C and other genotype may have higher risk for resistance. The prevalence among treatment-naive patients in Beijing was low. Resistance to NNRTIs was higher than with PIs or NRTIs. Continuous monitoring of regional levels of HIV-1 TDRs would contribute to improve treatment outcomes and prevent failures.
Previous studies show inconsistent associations between α-linolenic acid (ALA) and risk of CHD. We aimed to examine an aggregate association between ALA intake and risk of CHD, and assess for any dose–response relationship. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for prospective cohort studies examining associations between ALA intake and CHD, including composite CHD and fatal CHD. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis models, comparing the highest category of ALA intake with the lowest across studies. Subgroup analysis was conducted based on study design, geographic region, age and sex. For dose–response analyses, we used two-stage random-effects dose–response models. In all, fourteen studies of thirteen cohorts were identified and included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that higher ALA intake was associated with modest reduced risk of composite CHD (risk ratios (RR)=0·91; 95 % CI 0·85, 0·97) and fatal CHD (RR=0·85; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·96). The analysis showed a J-shaped relationship between ALA intake and relative risk of composite CHD (χ2=21·95, P<0·001). Compared with people without ALA intake, only people with ALA intake <1·4 g/d showed reduced risk of composite CHD. ALA intake was linearly associated with fatal CHD – every 1 g/d increase in ALA intake was associated with a 12 % decrease in fatal CHD risk (95 % CI −0·21, −0·04). Though a higher dietary ALA intake was associated with reduced risk of composite and fatal CHD, the excess composite CHD risk at higher ALA intakes warrants further investigation, especially through randomised controlled trials.
Whether there are distinct subtypes of schizophrenia is an important issue to advance understanding and treatment of schizophrenia.
To understand and treat individuals with schizophrenia, the aim was to advance understanding of differences between individuals, whether there are discrete subtypes, and how fist-episode patients (FEP) may differ from multiple episode patients (MEP).
These issues were analysed in 687 FEP and 1880 MEP with schizophrenia using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for (PANSS) schizophrenia before and after antipsychotic medication for 6 weeks.
The seven Negative Symptoms were correlated with each other and with P2 (conceptual disorganisation), G13 (disturbance of volition), and G7 (motor retardation). The main difference between individuals was in the cluster of seven negative symptoms, which had a continuous unimodal distribution. Medication decreased the PANSS scores for all the symptoms, which were similar in the FEP and MEP groups.
The negative symptoms are a major source of individual differences, and there are potential implications for treatment.
A 336-cm-long sediment core spanning the last 130 ka was recovered from Lake Xingkai on the northeastern margin of the East Asian summer monsoon domain to reveal the linkage between lacustrine depositional processes and environmental changes. Bayesian end member modeling analysis was conducted to partition and interpret the grain-size distributions of Lake Xingkai sediments. Our results suggest that the sedimentary system is characterized by three end members (EMs). EM1 and EM2, with a modal value of 13 and 10 μm, respectively, indicate the variation of local hydraulic conditions. EM3, with a modal value of 5 μm, reflects the background atmospheric dust loading. High atmospheric dust concentration generally occurred during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5d, MIS 4, and early MIS 3, when the climate in the Asian dust source region was cold and dry. In contrast, low dust concentration prevailed during MIS 2, likely due to the southward shift of the westerlies driven by maximum ice volume in the high latitudes.
The Megamaser Cosmology Project (MCP) measures the Hubble Constant by determining geometric distances to circumnuclear 22 GHz H2O megamasers in galaxies at low redshift (z < 0.05) but well into the Hubble flow. In combination with the recent, exquisite observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background by WMAP and Planck, these measurements provide a direct test of the standard cosmological model and constrain the equation of state of dark energy. The MCP is a multi-year project that has recently completed observations and is currently working on final analysis. Based on distance measurements to the first four published megamasers in the sample, the MCP currently determines H0 = 69.3 ± 4.2 km s−1 Mpc−1. The project is finalizing analysis for five additional galaxies. When complete, we expect to achieve a ~4% measurement. Given the tension between the Planck prediction of H0 in the context of the standard cosmological model and astrophysical measurements based on standard candles, the MCP provides a critical and independent geometric measurement that does not rely on external calibrations or a distance ladder.
This article outlines the evolution of a rescue team in responding to adenovirus prevention with a deployable field hospital. The local governments mobilized a shelter hospital and a rescue team consisting of 59 members to assist with rescue and response efforts after an epidemic outbreak of adenovirus. We describe and evaluate the challenges of preparing for deployment, field hospital maintenance, treatment mode, and primary treatment methods. The field hospital established at the rescue scene consisted of a medical command vehicle, a computed tomography shelter, an X-ray shelter, a special laboratory shelter, an oxygen and electricity supply vehicle, and epidemic prevention and protection equipment. The rescue team comprised paramedics, physicians, X-ray technicians, respiratory therapists, and logistical personnel. In 22 days, more than 3000 patients with suspected adenovirus infection underwent initial examinations. All patients were properly treated, and no deaths occurred. After emergency measures were implemented, the spread of adenovirus was eventually controlled. An emergency involving infectious diseases in less-developed regions demands the rapid development of a field facility with specialized medical personnel when local hospital facilities are either unavailable or unusable. An appropriate and detailed prearranged action plan is important for infectious diseases prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:109–114)
Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) has recently caused multiple outbreaks. This study examined polymorphisms in CD46 to determine their involvement in HAdV-55 infection.
A total of 214 study subjects infected with HAdV-55 were included in our study. The study subjects were divided into those with silent infections (n=91), minor infections (n=85), and severe infections (n=38). Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CD46 were examined.
Compared with the AA genotype, the TT genotype at rs2724385 (CD46, A/T) was associated with a protective effect against disease occurrence, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.20 (0.04-0.97) (P=0.038). There were no significant differences between the patients with minor and severe infection and those who had silent HAdV-55 infection in the other CD46 SNPs. We next compared the polymorphisms of these genes according to disease severity in HAdV-55-infected patients with clinical symptoms. The results showed that there were no significant differences between minor infections and severe infections.
Our results suggested that the CD46 SNP at rs2724385 is associated with the occurrence of disease in HAdV-55-infected patients. A much larger number of samples is required to understand the role of CD46 polymorphisms in the occurrence and progression of infection by HAdV-55. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:427–430)
A multimodal actuator was proposed to achieve a more agile power-assisted exoskeleton in uncertain complex walking environments. A power-assisted knee exoskeleton prototype based on a multimodal actuator was constructed. With this multimodal actuator, several modes of operation in the power-assisted knee exoskeleton during a motion cycle are actuated, including series elastic actuation, stiff position control, and energy storage and release. Also, a control strategy for power-assisted knee exoskeleton motion control based on a state machine is developed. The ability of the power-assisted knee exoskeleton to follow human motion was tested, and the results showed that the angle error of the knee exoskeleton followed the human motion is not more than 0.4˚, and the response time error of the knee exoskeleton followed the human motion is not more than 0.2 s.