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We describe the use of a multi-aperture Hartmann mask coupled to a slightly out-of-focus focal plane array imager to monitor atmospheric turbulence (‘seeing’) produced by refractive index fluctuations. The imager (a CCD) is located inside or outside the focal surface of the imaging system so that each sub-aperture of the Hartmann mask produces an image well separated from all of the other images produced by the mask. Since the depth of focus of the sub-apertures is an order of magnitude larger than that of the parent optical system, the individual images are still diffraction-limited. We obtain short (10 to 100 msec) exposures and monitor the position fluctuations of the images. Analysis of the position and intensity fluctuations of the images can be used to determine the atmospheric parameter r0, the wind direction and velocity, and, under some circumstances, the distance of the turbulent layer from the observing site.
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