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Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a main pathogen causing community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adults. Since the emergence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in the early 2000s in Japan, it has been increasingly reported worldwide as a growing problem in treatment for children. With increasing macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae and limited data regarding its characterization and molecular analysis, we investigated the dominant M. pneumoniae strains during the recent outbreak in South Korea, and evaluated if there was an association between a specific type and macrolide resistance. Between October 2014 and December 2016 in South Korea, 249 respiratory specimens obtained from patients with confirmed M. pneumoniae pneumonia were genotyped the P1 adhesin gene, and the mutations associated with resistance (A2063G and A2064G) were tested by sequencing the targeted domain V regions of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene. Results revealed that M. pneumoniae type 1 were predominant, which was strongly associated with macrolide-resistance during the whole study period. This is the first study assessing whether M. pneumoniae subtype is related to macrolide resistance during the outbreak of M. pneumoniae.
Tricuspid atresia with absent pulmonary valve and intact ventricular septum is an extremely rare cardiac malformation, historically associated with a poor prognosis. Only a few cases with successful surgical palliation have been reported in the literature. We present the case of an 8-month-old infant with this malformation who underwent successful bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis with complete exclusion of the right ventricle.
Fermented foods such as kimchi are traditional foods in Korea and could provide beneficial health effects. However, fermented foods also contribute to increased Na intake since salt is added during the fermentation process. The present research aimed to examine trends in the consumption of fermented foods and Na intake over time by Korean adults, using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey; data from 1998 to 2016 were divided into seven groups from KNHANES I to VII.
Demographic information on sex, age, education and income were collected. Assessment of fermented food and Na consumption was conducted via analysis of 24 h dietary recall data. Multivariate linear regressions and logistic regressions were performed to calculate the P for trends by applying strata, cluster and sampling weights by SAS PROC SURVEY.
The target population was Korean adults, aged ≥19 years, who participated in a 24 h dietary recall. The total number was 76 199, with 32 324 men and 43 875 women.
A significant decline in fermented food consumption was observed from 1998 to 2016 in both men and women (P < 0·0001). Among fermented foods, kimchi consumption was greatly reduced while pickled vegetables consumption showed a marked increase. Similarly, Na intake from fermented foods declined significantly over time in both men and women (P < 0·0001).
The consumption of fermented foods and Na intake from fermented foods by Korean adults decreased significantly over time from 1998 to 2016.
The present study analysed and compared the nutritional qualities of private brand (PB) and national brand (NB) ready meal (RM) products in South Korea.
Data on RM products were collected via a food information database (EatSight) between February and May of 2017. A total of ninety-one PB products from a leading discount store chain in South Korea and 415 NB products were selected and divided into four main categories of ‘refrigerated soups/stews’, ‘refrigerated noodles’, ‘frozen rice/noodles’ and ‘frozen dumplings’. Nutritional information was extracted for each product and analyses were performed to compare nutritional differences.
A total of 506 RM products.
PB products explained the highest percentage of refrigerated RM products while NB products occupied the highest percentage of frozen ones. Notably, main PB and NB products showed evident nutritional problems. Among PB products, refrigerated soups/stews were significantly higher in energy, fat, Na, saturated fat and trans-fat. Likewise, in the case of NB products, frozen rice/noodles were significantly higher in Na and saturated fat. Particularly, overall Na contents were high. When the Korean guidance on traffic-light labelling was applied, a mere 0·2 and 5·9 % of total RM products showed all four and three green lights, respectively. Meanwhile, those with no green lights accounted for 42·3 %.
Although it is difficult to draw a definitive conclusion on the comparative nutritional qualities due to the lack of consistency in the results, the study suggests that there is room to improve the nutritional qualities of overall RM products.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of developing and implementing a transdisciplinary community-based research center, the Center for Health Equity Research (CHER) Chicago, to offer a model for designing and implementing research centers that aim to address structural causes of health inequality.
Scholars from diverse backgrounds and disciplines formed a multidisciplinary team for the Center, and adopted the structural violence framework as the organizing conceptual model. All Center activities were based on community partnership. The Center activities were organized within three cores: administrative, investigator development, and community engagement and dissemination cores. The key activities during the first year were to develop a pilot grant program for early stage investigators (ESIs) and to establish community partnership mechanisms.
CHER provided more than 60 consultations for ESIs, which resulted in 31 pilot applications over the three application cycles. Over 200 academic and community partners attended the community symposium and discussed community priority. Some challenges encountered were: to improve communication among investigators, to clarify roles and responsibilities of the three cores, and to build consensus on the definition and operationalization of the concept of structural violence.
There is an increasing need for local hubs to facilitate transdisciplinary collaboration and community engagement to effectively address health inequity. Building consensus around a shared vision among partners is a difficult and yet important step toward achieving equity.
Body weight is a major risk determinant of frailty, but the effect of obesity on frailty is controversial. The present study aimed to confirm the hypothesis that the risk of frailty is positively associated with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), but the association is mediated by the waist:height ratio (WHtR) in older women and men. A total of 2862 community-dwelling older individuals aged 70–84 years were assessed for frailty using the Korean version of Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illnesses, and Loss of weight index. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was associated with a higher risk of frailty compared with BMI 18·5–<23 kg/m2 in all the older individuals (OR 1·88; 95 % CI 1·11, 3·17; P = 0·018) and in older women (OR 1·86; 95 % CI 1·01, 3·42; P = 0·047) before adjusting for WHtR but was not associated with BMI after adjusting for WHtR. Additionally, obesity was not significantly associated with the risk of frailty before and after adjusting for WHtR in older men. Mediation analysis revealed that the association between BMI and frailty score was mediated by WHtR. Moreover, the mediating effect of WHtR on frailty score was positive in both women and men, but the frailty score was associated with BMI positively in women and negatively in men. The present study suggests that the risk of frailty is higher in obese women, which is mediated by WHtR, but not in obese men.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Presented is the initial photophysical investigation of a series of transition metals complexed with an organic, two photon absorbing chromophore. This system is capable of a dual-mode nonlinear response. Upon two photon excitation, rapid intersystem crossing generates a long-lived and strongly absorbing triplet excited state capable of further nonlinear absorption via a reverse saturable absorption pathway.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
We have explored the properties of triplet excited states in a series of platinum acetylide oligomers of the type [trans-Pt(PBu3)2(-CC-Ar)2], where Ar is a highly conjugated two-photon absorbing organic chromophore. Incorporation of two-photon absorbers into a pi-conjugated system produces short-lived excited states (fs/ps) with high efficiency. Platinum acetylide units introduce strong spin-orbit coupling into the pi-conjugated system to give rise to high yields of long-lived triplet excited states (ns/us) having large triplet-triplet absorption cross sections. Thus, a platinum acetylide having two-photon absorbers will, in principle, feature a strong non-linear absorption in broad time domain. The presentation will focus on (1) the synthesis and photophysical characterization under one- and two-photon excitation, (2) the effect of two-photon absorbing chromophores on nonlinear absorption properties of platinum acetylides and (3) the evidence for reverse saturable absorption.
For decades, fructose intake has been recognised as an environmental risk for metabolic syndromes and diseases. Here we comprehensively examined the effects of fructose intake on mice liver transcriptomes. Fructose-supplemented water (34 %; w/v) was fed to both male and female C57BL/6N mice at their free will for 6 weeks, followed by hepatic transcriptomics analysis. Based on our criteria, differentially expressed genes (DEG) were selected and subjected to further computational analyses to predict key pathways and upstream regulator(s). Subsequently, predicted genes and pathways from the transcriptomics dataset were validated via quantitative RT-PCR analyses. As a result, we identified eighty-nine down-regulated and eighty-eight up-regulated mRNA in fructose-fed mice livers. These DEG were subjected to bioinformatics analysis tools in which DEG were mainly enriched in xenobiotic metabolic processes; further, in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, it was suggested that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an upstream regulator governing overall changes, while fructose suppresses the AhR signalling pathway. In our quantitative RT-PCR validation, we confirmed that fructose suppressed AhR signalling through modulating expressions of transcription factor (AhR nuclear translocator; Arnt) and upstream regulators (Ncor2, and Rb1). Altogether, we demonstrated that ad libitum fructose intake suppresses the canonical AhR signalling pathway in C57BL/6N mice liver. Based on our current observations, further studies are warranted, especially with regard to the effects of co-exposure to fructose on (1) other types of carcinogens and (2) inflammation-inducing agents (or even diets such as a high-fat diet), to find implications of fructose-induced AhR suppression.
Liquid films on wettable solid surfaces can be disturbed to dewet when low surface tension liquids or surfactants are added because the surface tension difference gives rise to stresses on the film interface. Here we consider an alcohol drop placed above a thin aqueous film, which punctures a hole in the film starting from underneath the alcohol drop. Such film dewetting is attributed to the Marangoni effects caused by the spatial gradient of alcohol vapour concentration. We measure the liquid–gas interfacial tension of aqueous liquids rapidly responding to the surrounding isopropyl alcohol vapour concentration, and observe evolution of the film morphology consisting of central hole, fringe film, thinning region and bulk. We construct scaling laws to predict the dewetting rates of the film by considering the Marangoni stress, viscous shear stress and evaporation. It is shown that our experiments are consistent with our theory.
Seoul is the third most densely populated area in the world except for the city-state. However, a national disaster plan has not yet been established.
From September 2017, representatives of seven regional emergency medical centers in Seoul met monthly and decided to investigate basic data for the future establishment of surge capacity planning.
Staff, supply, space, and systems for surge capacity were surveyed in seven hospitals. The additional surveyed data were as follows: hospital incident command system and actual operational experience; performance of disaster drill; safety and security plan; estimation of surge capacity in normal operating conditions and extreme operating conditions; alternative therapeutic spaces; back-up plan to call non-duty medical staff; decontamination equipment; contingency plan for stuff shortage; etc.
All the hospitals reported they have hospital incident command systems and held disaster drills every year, however, the two hospitals (28.5%) had no real experience of hospital incident command system activation. Five hospitals (71.4%) did not have a safety and security plan. They replied they can treat average 7.7 emergency patients (Korean Triage and Acute scale (KTAS) ≤ 3), 10 non-emergent patients (KTAS>4), 0.9 surgical patients and 0.7 unstable patients simultaneously in normal operating conditions. In extreme operating conditions, they replied they can treat average 26.4 emergency patients (KTAS ≤ 3), 54.3 non-emergent patients (KTAS>4), 37 surgical patients and 2.3 unstable patients simultaneously. The two hospitals (28.5%) had no alternative therapeutic spaces, no back-up plan to call non-duty medical staff and no contingency plan for stuff shortage. Three hospitals (42.9%) did not have decontamination equipment.
The survey revealed the basic data for surge capacity planning in Seoul. Data from hospitals other than regional emergency medical centers should be collected for the completion of disaster plans.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern because of the high mortality rate of young people and a high proportion among the trauma. According to studies, patients visiting the emergency department (ED) with TBI comprise 1.4% of all ED patients.
The authors think that the characteristics of patients with TBI will vary according to the age group. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical and social characteristics of patients with TBI visiting the ED by age group.
Trauma patients who conducted brain CT at the ED of Korean University Hospital (three hospitals) for 3 years from March 2013 to February 2016 were enrolled. Medical records were investigated retrospectively. The GCS scores were estimated at initial ED arrival. The primary outcome was to determine the characteristics of each age groups with gender, severity (by GSC score), trauma mechanism, and admission rate.
A total of 15,567 TBI patients received brain CT evaluation during the investigation period. Based on age, patients in their 50s were the most common (16.5%). Regarding the severity, the ratio of mild was higher in under patients under 9 (99.3%); the ratio of severe was higher for patients in their 20s (4.6%). In almost every age group, the male ratio of TBI was higher, except for females aged 70 or older. Under 19 years of age, the ambulance utilization rate was lower than any other age group. The most common injury mechanism was a collision, the next was a traffic accident, and in under 9, a fall was the most common. 70.1% of patients returned home after treatments.
Identifying the characteristics of patients with TBI visiting ED is fundamental. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously collect basic data on TBI among patients visiting the ED.