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We examined the impact of demographic confounding factors on responses to the Impact of Event Scale–Revised.
Participants were rescue workers aged 20 to 65 years who had responded during the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. A multiple indicators, multiple causes model was used to examine associations between covariates and latent factors or items in the Impact of Event Scale–Revised.
Participants were recruited from April to August 2015. The model fit indices in the confirmatory factor analysis and the multiple indicators, multiple causes model suggested an acceptable model fit. Higher education and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale score were significantly associated with a decrease in intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Counseling was significantly associated with increased avoidance. In the direct path model using modification indices, counseling and early arrival were identified as significant covariates.
This study found that higher education and resilience reduced all 3 factors in the Impact of Event Scale–Revised and improved the symptoms of intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Counseling and early arrival were also associated with improvement in certain items. However, counseling was also linked to increased avoidance and worsening psychophysiological reactions. Further research is recommended to clarify these relationships. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:309–318)
To investigate the relationship between the severities of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and white matter alterations.
We applied tract-based spatial statistics for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquired by 3T magnetic resonance imaging. First, we compared fractional anisotropy (FA) between 20 OCD patients and 30 healthy controls (HC). Then, applying whole brain analysis, we searched the brain regions showing correlations between the severities of symptom dimensions assessed by Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised and FA in all participants. Finally, we calculated the correlations between the six symptom dimensions and multiple DTI measures [FA, axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), mean diffusivity (MD)] in a region-of-interest (ROI) analysis and explored the differences between OCD patients and HC.
There were no between-group differences in FA or brain region correlations between the severities of symptom dimensions and FA in any of the participants. ROI analysis revealed negative correlations between checking severity and left inferior frontal gyrus white matter and left middle temporal gyrus white matter and a positive correlation between ordering severity and right precuneus in FA in OCD compared with HC. We also found negative correlations between ordering severity and right precuneus in RD, between obsessing severities and right supramarginal gyrus in AD and MD, and between hoarding severity and right insular gyrus in AD.
Our study supported the hypothesis that the severities of respective symptom dimensions are associated with different patterns of white matter alterations.
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique which enables to fabricate mesoporous film at low temperature has been developed. Meso-structure silica films are prepared by sol-gel process based on the self-organization of surfactant templates, and the organic templates are successfully extracted from the films by supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) modified with hydrogen peroxide at 80 °C and 19.6 MPa. The extraction process is analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the films. In order to discuss the feasibility of such films obtained at low temperature for electronics applications with low dielectric and low dielectric loss, the mechanical properties and the densities of the films are compared with various silica films prepared by different method.
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