To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Psychological distress is a common symptom after natural disasters. Although musculoskeletal pain also increases after natural disasters, its relation to psychological distress is not known. This study aimed to examine the association of musculoskeletal pain with new-onset psychological distress among survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake.
A panel study was conducted with survivors at 2 and 3 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. New-onset psychological distress was defined as psychological distress absent at 2 years and present at 3 years after the disaster. The number of musculoskeletal pain sites at 2 years after the disaster was divided into 3 categories (0, 1, and ≥2). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for new-onset psychological distress according to the number of musculoskeletal pain sites.
The rate of new-onset psychological distress was 6.7%. Musculoskeletal pain was associated with new-onset psychological distress. Using “0” as a reference, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.65 (0.92-2.95) in “1” and 2.12 (1.24-3.64) in “≥2” (P for trend=.02).
Musculoskeletal pain is associated with new-onset psychological distress among survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:295–300)
A number of developing countries have come to face the growing problems of municipal solid waste management caused by rapid economic growth. Although there are many studies on the environmental Kuznets curve, very few address the issue of municipal solid waste, and there is still controversy concerning the validity of the waste version of the Kuznets curve hypothesis. It is demonstrated that the turning point for household municipal solid waste is approximately 3.7 million yen per person, which is far less than the maximum income in the sample and valid evidence for absolute decoupling. The success of our study partially stems from our highly disaggregated data and use of spatial econometrics. The former aspect indicates that distinguishing between household and business waste reveals the waste–income relationship, whereas the latter indicates the importance of peer effects when municipal governments formulate waste-reduction policies.
Laminaria japonica is traditionally eaten in Japan as a beneficial food for thrombosis. The alga contains two specific ingredients, a xanthophyll fucoxanthin (FX) and a polysaccharide, F-fucoidan (FD). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether FX or FD exhibited anti-thrombotic effects. For this purpose, three types of capsules, containing 1 mg FX, 400 mg fucoidan, and both, were prepared from the alga and administered to volunteers for 5 weeks. The dose of FD or FD+FX significantly shortened lysis time (LT) of the thrombus measured by a global thrombosis test in the blood, but FX did not. Examining the mechanism, dietary FD increased H2O2 and the secretion of prostacyclin (PGI2), a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation, in the blood, although FD was under the detection limit in the blood, determining with its monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, in mouse experiments, dietary FD was totally excreted into the faeces and was not incorporated into the blood. We then employed a co-culture system of a Caco-2 cell monolayer with fresh human blood. The addition of FD to Caco-2 cells stimulated the expression of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) and dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) mRNA and secreted H2O2 onto the blood side accompanied by a significant increase in serum PGI2 production. These effects were invalidated by the combined addition of FD with its monoclonal antibody. The results suggested that dietary FD stimulated the expression of H2O2-producing enzymes in intestinal epithelial cells and released H2O2 into the blood, which played a signalling role to increase PGI2 production and then shortened LT for thrombi.
Titanium diboride has been sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS). With the addition of tetragonal Al3Ti or cubic (Al,Ni)3Ti, the Vickers hardness, Hv, of TiB2 increases up to as high as 2000 by the sintering at 1273K, while that of the sample sintered without additives is as low as 20. Such a remarkable improvement is caused by the improvement of direct link between TiB2 grains in addition to the effect that Al3Ti or (Al,Ni)3Ti fills in the space between TiB2 grains and act as a binder.
Dietary fucoxanthin has been reported to exert several physiological functions, and fucoxanthinol is considered to be the primary active metabolite of fucoxanthin. However, there is no information about the pharmacokinetics of fucoxanthinol in human subjects. In the present study, eighteen human volunteers were orally administered kombu extract containing 31 mg fucoxanthin, and their peripheral blood was collected 5 min before and 0·5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after the treatment. Plasma fucoxanthinol concentrations were measured by HPLC, and the pharmacokinetics of fucoxanthinol were as follows: maximum concentration, 44·2 nmol/l; time at maximum concentration, 4 h; terminal half-time, 7·0 h; area under the curve (AUC) for 1–24 h, 578·7 nmol/l × h; AUC(∞), 663·7 nmol/l × h. In addition to fucoxanthinol, we also attempted to detect amarouciaxanthin A, a hepatic metabolite of fucoxanthinol, using HPLC, but it was not present in the volunteers' plasma. On the other hand, a peak that was suspected to represent the cis-isomer of fucoxanthinol was found in the HPLC chromatogram. By comparing the present results with those of a previous study using mice, we found that the bioavailability and metabolism of fucoxanthinol differ between human subjects and mice.
Titanium diboride (TiB2) has been sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS). With the addition of Al3Ti, the Vickers hardness, Hv, of TiB2 increases up to as high as 2100 by the sintering at 1273K, while that of the sample sintered without Al3Ti is as low as 20. Such a remarkable improvement is caused by the formation of rigid direct contacts between TiB2 grains in addition to the effect that Al3Ti fills in the space between TiB2 grains and acts as a binder.
A new method for photopatterning of a bisanthracene-functionalized mesogenic compound 1 was developed. The monomer 1 had two anthracene moieties on each molecular end, and showed crystalline and liquid-crystalline phases at room temperature and at an elevated temperature, respectively. Upon UV irradiation of 1 in the molten state, intermolecular photodimerization of the anthracene moieties was induced, and consequently resulted in the formation of a linear polymer. In contrast to the monomer 1, the obtained polymer exhibited amorphous phase at room temperature. When 1 was irradiated with UV light through a photomask in the molten state, the irradiated areas changed to amorphous phase due to photopolymerization, whereas the non-irradiated areas remained the ordered phase. This phenomenon provided visual images with a clear contrast under polarized light. In addition, the images could be erased by heating the whole sample at a temperature above ca. 200 °C, because the amorphous phase changed to the ordered phase due to a reproduction of the monomer 1 from the polymer associated with thermal back-reaction of the anthracene photodimer. Photopatterning could be performed for the erased sample again and the process was found to be fairly reversible.
Since 2005, we have been carrying out a precise radial velocity survey of about 190 intermediate-mass (1.5-5 M⊙) G and K giants at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO) in Korea and Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO) in Japan, which aims to reveal statistical properties of planetary systems around intermediate-mass stars. We have finished the first screening of 120 stars so far and have identified 5 candidates with large periodic radial velocity variations. One of the candidates turned out to be orbited by a brown dwarf mass companion with minimum mass of 37.6 MJup and semimajor axis of 1.71 AU. The primary star has a mass of 3.9 M⊙, which ranks among the most massive stars with substellar companions. Our discovery may support the current view obtained from results of planet searches around intermediate-mass stars that massive substellar companions tend to form around massive stars.
The perovskites PbFeO2F and 0.5PbFeO2F-0.5PbTiO3 were synthesized at high temperatures (1000°C) and high pressures (4 – 6 GPa). The crystal and magnetic structures were determined using powder neutron diffraction. Quenched PbFeO2F has the cubic perovskite-type, Pm3m, structure in which the Pb ion shifts from ideal A-site along the <110> directions, which is in good accordance with a previous report. The magnetic structure is antiferromagnetic G-type with propagation vector k = (1/2 1/2 1/2) and an Fe3+ ordered moment of 3.83 μB at 283K. The Néel temperature is 655(5) K. Annealed PbFeO2F has a tetragonal perovskite-type structure at room temperature and transforms reversibly from tetragonal to cubic at approximately 470 K. A superlattice with dimensions a × a × 5c is observed both in electron and x-ray diffraction. The solid solution 0.5PbFeO2F-0.5PbTiO3 belongs to the non-centrosymmetric space group P4mm. The magnetic structure is G-type antiferromagnetic and shows a weak ferromagnetic moment at 4 K. Consequently, 0.5PbFeO2F-0.5PbTiO3 is simultaneously ferroelectric and a weak ferromagnet at low temperature. The Néel temperature is 450 K but the temperature dependence of the ordered Fe moment is anomalous.
A novel perovskite-type oxide PbFeO3 was successfully synthesized under a pressure as high as 7GPa, and the crystal structure, oxidation state, thermal stability, magnetic and dielectric properties were investigated. PbFeO3 possesses an orthorhombic perovskite unit cell and there is no phase transition between room temperature and 570 K. This compound decomposes into Pb2Fe2O5 in the vicinity of 740 K in air. According to XPS, it was found that this compound includes the Pb2+, Pb4+, and Fe3+ ions.
Penetrating cardiac injuries commonly occur secondary to gunshot or stab wounds. This is a report an unusual case of a patient who sustained a penetrating cardiac injury due to a nail from a terrorism-related, nail-bomb explosion. Associated problems included pericardial tamponade, penetrating cardiac injuries, acute, traumatic, myocardial infarction, and a penetrating lung injury. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive surgical intervention resulted in full recovery of the patient.
Impurity effects were investigated in (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) systems in order to suppress leakage currents under relatively low oxygen pressure conditions by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). We tried to dope transition metals, such as Mo, Mn, Cr, W and Fe into the BST target and used the targets to fabricate the films. By measuring electrical properties, we found Fe-doping had a significant effect on suppressing leakage current. Subsequently, we changed the amount of Fe doping from 0.1mol% to 6%. As a result, with post annealing, the sample with Fe:4% showed the lowest leakage current among those analyzed. Even without post annealing, the sample with Fe:6% showed the lowest leakage current. As for the dielectric constants, they decreased as the doping increased. At most, a 30% reduction was observed, compared with non-doped BST. XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structures) results indicated that the valency of the Fe ion was 3+ and located at the B-site of BST.