Conventional unpowered lower limb exoskeleton paid little attention to the metabolic cost of body during sit down (SD)/stand up (SU). The SD motion model and the motion characteristics of lower extremity are analyzed; then, a novel unpowered lower limb exoskeleton is proposed, and the contribution degree of muscles and stiffness of joints are used for determining the location and stiffness of energy storage element. The metabolic cost of relevant muscles in joints of the left leg is obtained based on Opensim software. The results show that metabolic cost of the gracilis, rectus femoris (RF), and long head of the biceps femoris decreased about 13%, 9%, and 68%, respectively. The total metabolic cost of body decreased about 14% during SD. However, the metabolic cost of the gracilis, RF, and long/short head of the biceps femoris increased about 22%, 33%, 208%, and 46%, respectively. And the metabolic cost of sartorius reduces about 39%, the total metabolic cost of body increased about 25.6% during SU, under the exoskeleton conditions. The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis for the optimal design of unpowered lower limb exoskeleton.