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To evaluate the appropriateness of the screening strategy for healthcare personnel (HCP) during a hospital-associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak, we performed a serologic investigation in 189 rRT-PCR–negative HCP exposed and assigned to MERS patients. Although 20%–25% of HCP experienced MERS-like symptoms, none of them showed seroconversion by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
In this paper, the electrical properties of bottom-gate (BG) polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) by NiSi2 seed-induced lateral crystallization (SILC) and its applications are presented. Sequential lateral solidification (SLS), which is one of crystallization methods, is known to have poor electrical properties of TFTs with BG structures due to problems induced by laser. Therefore, the laser method cannot be used to well-developed production line of amorphous-Si (a-Si) TFT, resulting in large initial investment cost to change fabrication procedures. On the other hand, the BG poly-Si TFT by SILC (SILC-BGPS TFT) has basically compatible process flows with that of the a-Si TFT. The SILC-BGPS TFT exhibited threshold voltage of -3.9 V, steep subthreshold slope of 130 mV/dec, a high field-effect mobility of 129 cm2/Vs , and Ion/Ioff ratio of ∼106.
After Super Typhoon Haiyan, a category 5 tropical cyclone, insufficient resources were available for medical management. Many patients in the Philippines were wounded as a result of the disaster. We examined the prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of disaster-related wounds and wound infection in the post-disaster period.
We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients admitted to a Korean Disaster Relief Team clinic at St. Paul’s Hospital, Tacloban City, Republic of Philippines, between December 9 and 13, 2013. Traumatic injury patients were included; patients not exhibiting a wound were excluded.
Of the 160 patients enrolled in the study, 71 (44.4%) had infected wounds. There were no significant differences in the age, sex, past medical history, wound site, wound depth, injury mechanism, or inducer of injury between the uninfected and infected groups. In the univariate analysis, a foreign-body-contaminated wound, a chronic wound, elapsed time from injury to medical contact, an inadequately cared for wound, and need for subsequent wound management were associated with wound infection (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis revealed that foreign body contamination and having an inadequately cared for wound were associated with wound infection (odds ratio [OR]: 10.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.59-28.56; OR: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.07-11.51, respectively).
In the post-disaster situation, many wound infections required definitive care. Wound infection was associated with inadequately cared for wounds and foreign-body-contaminated wounds. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:28–33)
This study examined changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of care (QoC) as perceived by terminally ill cancer patients and a stratified set of HRQoL or QoC factors that are most likely to influence survival at the end of life (EoL).
We administered questionnaires to 619 consecutive patients immediately after they were diagnosed with terminal cancer by physicians at 11 university hospitals and at the National Cancer Center in Korea. Subjects were followed up over 161.2 person-years until their deaths. We measured HRQoL using the core 30-item European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, and QoC using the Quality Care Questionnaire–End of Life (QCQ–EoL). We evaluated changes in HRQoL and QoC issues during the first three months after enrollment, performing sensitivity analysis by using data generated via four methods (complete case analysis, available case analysis, the last observation carried forward, and multiple imputation).
Emotional and cognitive functioning decreased significantly over time, while dyspnea, constipation, and pain increased significantly. Dignity-conserving care, care by healthcare professionals, family relationships, and QCQ–EoL total score decreased significantly. Global QoL, appetite loss, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG–PS) scores were significantly associated with survival.
Significance of results:
Future standardization of palliative care should be focused on assessment of these deteriorated types of quality. Accurate estimates of the length of life remaining for terminally ill cancer patients by such EoL-enhancing factors as global QoL, appetite loss, and ECOG–PS are needed to help patients experience a dignified and comfortable death.
Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of 99.9999% aluminum single crystal at room temperature was examined under frictionless deformation mode. To exclude the self-heating of the specimen due to applied high strain, a microcrack that localizes the stress at a very small region was intentionally introduced by controlled local necking. For the in situ observation of DRX, a specially designed in situ microdeformation device was positioned inside an electron backscattered diffraction system chamber. Recrystallized grains showed relatively random texture and preferred growth direction. The subgrains with low-angle grain boundaries formed by dynamic recovery transformed into small grains with high-angle grain boundaries, acting as nuclei for discontinuous dynamic recrystallization and growing by further deformation. The DRX in pure aluminum can take place under frictionless tensile deformation conditions at room temperature, and the stress localization and high purity are key issues for the DRX of aluminum at room temperature.
Objective: We showed previously that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) levels are significantly elevated in the hippocampi of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the exact cause of this elevation and its function are unknown. Recent animal studies have suggested a mechanism involving the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) NR2B–GSK-3β loop.
Methods: To investigate the existence of an NR2B–GSK-3β loop in the hippocampi of patients with MDD, we examined the expression of NR2B. We also attempted to identify markers that correlate with NR2B levels in the hippocampus, using the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium Integrative Database (SNCID). The SNCID is a web-based tool used to integrate Stanley Medical Research Institute (SMRI) data sets.
Results: We found that hippocampal levels of NR2B and DLGAP1 mRNA were higher in the MDD group (n = 8) than in unaffected controls (n = 12) (p < 0.05). NR2B expression levels were correlated with the expression levels of NR2A, NR1, DLGAP1, GSK-3β and nitric oxide synthase 1, as well as with the number of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus in all subjects in the SNC (n = 42, p < 0.001).
Conclusion: The results of our study show the possible involvement of excessive activation of the NR2B–GSK-3β loop in the overexpression of GSK-3β in the hippocampi of patients with MDD.
We performed this study to investigate the effect of histone deacetylase inhibition during extended culture of in vitro matured mouse oocytes. In vitro matured mouse (BDF1) oocytes were cultured in vitro for 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively, and then inseminated. During in vitro culture for 6 and 12 h, two doses of trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, were added (100 nM and 500 nM) to the culture medium and the oocytes were then inseminated. During the 24-h in vitro culture, two doses of TSA were added (100 nM and 500 nM) to the medium and the oocytes were activated with 10 mM SrCl2. After the 6-h culture, the fertilization rate was similar to that of the control group, but the blastocyst formation rate was significantly decreased. After the 12-h culture, both the fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were significantly decreased. After the 24-h culture, total fertilization failure occurred. In the oocytes cultured for 6 and 12 h, the fertilization and blastocyst formation rates did not differ between the TSA-supplemented and control groups. Although extended culture of the mouse oocytes significantly affected their fertilization and embryo development, TSA supplementation did not overcome their decreased developmental potential.
We demonstrated the growth of indium nitride (InN) nanowires on Si(111) substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition without the use of any intermediate GaN or AlN buffer layer. The InN nanowires were grown by forming the Au + In droplets and In droplets on the Au- and In-coated Si substrate. The growth conditions such as chamber pressure, chamber temperature, reaction gas flow rate, and carrier gas flow rate were optimized to yield nanowires free from contamination. Depending on the growth parameters different growth regimes for the InN nanowires were identified. The strength of self-catalytic route has been highlighted. The morphology and microstructures of samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The transmission electron microscopy and SEM investigations showed that the InN nanowires are single crystals with diameters ranging from 40 to 400 nm, and lengths up to 3 µm. Photoluminescence spectra of the InN nanowires showed a strong broad emission peak at 0.77 eV.
This study aimed to investigate whether aquaporin 3 (Aqp3) mRNAs are expressed in immature oocytes and altered during in vitro maturation process. Five- to 6-week-old female ICR mice were primed by gonadotropin for 24 and 48 h. Immature oocytes obtained 48 h after priming were also matured in vitro for 17 to 18 h. In vivo matured oocytes were obtained after 48 h priming followed by hCG injection. Total RNAs were extracted from 80 to 150 oocytes in each experimental group, and the levels of Aqp3 mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The experiments were repeated twice using different oocytes. The Aqp3 mRNA was expressed in immature oocytes, as well as in in vitro and in vivo matured oocytes. The expression level was higher in immature oocytes obtained 48 h after priming (17.2 ± 8.6, mean ± SD) than those with no priming (5.7 ± 0.8) or obtained 24 h after priming (2.5 ± 0.8). The expression of Aqp3 mRNA decreased after in vitro maturation (1.2 ± 0.5), which was similar to in vivo matured oocytes (1.0 ± 0.0). Our work demonstrated that Aqp3 mRNA expression increased during the development of immature oocyte but decreased after completion of in vitro maturation. The results indicate that AQP3 is certainly needed for the acquisition of immature oocytes’ full growing potential within antral follicles.
To improve the IPD reliability of NAND flash memory, plasma oxidation was introduced as the post-treatment process of ONO (Oxide/Nitride/Oxide) IPD. The LP-CVD SiO2 modified by plasma oxidation showed the excellent electrical properties. e.g., low leakage current, high breakdown voltage etc. By the analysis of Tof-SIMS and XRR, we could observe the several changes of physical characteristics such as the reduction of impurities (H, N etc.), the increase of oxide density, and the improvement of oxide surface roughness. We found out the appropriate treatment condition to be able to densify oxide layer without the addition of ONO Equivalent Oxide Thickness (EOT). The LP-CVD SiO2 prepared by plasma oxidation was used for the ONO IPD of 50nm NAND flash device and also compared with the conventional LP-CVD SiO2 in the aspect of the IPD reliability.
Micro-tensile properties of hard and soft thin films, TiN and Au, were evaluated by directly measuring tensile strain in film tension using the micro-ESPI(electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry) technique. Micro-tensile stress-strain curves for these films were obtained and the properties were determined. TiN thin film 1 μm thick and Au films with two different thicknesses (t=0.5 μm and 1 μm) were deposited onto the silicon wafers, respectively, and micro-tensile specimens wide 50, 100 and 200 μm were fabricated using micromachining. In-situ measurement of the micro-tensile strain during tensile loading was carried out using the subsequent strain measurement algorithm and the ESPI system developed in this study. The micro-tensile curves showed that TiN thin film was a linear-elastic material showing no plastic deformation and Au thin film was an elastic-plastic material showing significant plastic flow. Effect of the specimen dimensions on mechanical properties was examined. It was revealed that tensile strengths for both films were slightly increased with increasing specimen width. Furthermore, variations of yielding strengths for the thin film Au with change of the dimension were investigated.
NiCr films were thermally evaporated on the Mn-Ni-Co-O thick-film substrates. The NiCr/Mn-Ni-Co-O bi-layer systems were tested in a thermal shock chamber with three temperature differences of 150, 175 and 200°C. The systems were considered to have failed when the sheet resistance of NiCr films changed by 30% relative to an initial value. As the cyclic repetition of thermal shock increased, the sheet resistance of NiCr coatings increased. The Coffin-Manson equation was applied to the failure mechanism of cracking of NiCr coatings and the SEM observation of cracks and delamination in NiCr coatings due to thermal cycling agreed well with the failure mechanism.
In this paper, we prove that the dimension of the space of bounded energy-finite solutions for the Schrödinger operator is invariant under rough isometries between complete Riemannian manifolds satisfying the local volume condition, the local Poincaré inequality and the local Sobolev inequality. We also prove that the dimension of the space of bounded harmonic functions with finite Dirichlet integral is invariant under rough isometries between complete Riemannian manifolds satisfying the same local conditions. These results generalize those of Kanai, Grigor'yan, the second author, and Li and Tam.
The optical absorption spectra of cobalt-doped MgIn2S4, CdIn2S4, and HgIn2S4 single crystals grown by a chemical transport reaction were investigated at 7 K. The values of Dq and B calculated from the observed spectra show that the d electrons are more delocalized in the order of MgIn2S4, CdIn2S4, and HgIn2S4. Because this order corresponds to the decreasing order of the electronegativity differences between the metal and sulfur atoms of the host crystals, we conclude that as the metal-sulfur bonds in the host crystals are more covalent, the d electrons of the cobalt impurities are more spread out and the cobalt-sulfur bonds are also more covalent.