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COVID-19 has long-term impacts on public mental health, while few research studies incorporate multidimensional methods to thoroughly characterise the psychological profile of general population and little detailed guidance exists for mental health management during the pandemic. This research aims to capture long-term psychological profile of general population following COVID-19 by integrating trajectory modelling approaches, latent trajectory pattern identification and network analyses.
Longitudinal data were collected from a nationwide sample of 18 804 adults in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak in China. Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 and Insomnia Severity Index were used to measure depression, anxiety and insomnia, respectively. The unconditional and conditional latent growth curve models were fitted to investigate trajectories and long-term predictors for psychological symptoms. We employed latent growth mixture model to identify the major psychological symptom trajectory patterns, and ran sparse Gaussian graphical models with graphical lasso to explore the evolution of psychopathological network.
At 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak, psychological symptoms generally alleviated, and five psychological symptom trajectories with different demographics were identified: normal stable (63.4%), mild stable (15.3%), mild-increase to decrease (11.7%), mild-decrease to increase (4.0%) and moderate/severe stable (5.5%). The finding indicated that there were still about 5% individuals showing consistently severe distress and approximately 16% following fluctuating psychological trajectories, who should be continuously monitored. For individuals with persistently severe trajectories and those with fluctuating trajectories, central or bridge symptoms in the network were mainly ‘motor abnormality’ and ‘sad mood’, respectively. Compared with initial peak and late COVID-19 phase, aftermath of initial peak might be a psychologically vulnerable period with highest network connectivity. The central and bridge symptoms for aftermath of initial peak (‘appetite change’ and ‘trouble of relaxing’) were totally different from those at other pandemic phases (‘sad mood’).
This research identified the overall growing trend, long-term predictors, trajectory classes and evolutionary pattern of psychopathological network of psychological symptoms in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak. It provides a multidimensional long-term psychological profile of the general population after COVID-19 outbreak, and accentuates the essentiality of continuous psychological monitoring, as well as population- and time-specific psychological management after COVID-19. We believe our findings can offer reference for long-term psychological management after pandemics.
An ecofriendly process has been successfully developed to synthesize the polycrystalline silver nanopolyhedrons with a high yield at large scale. By using tannic acid in the presence of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), high quality silver nanopolyhedrons were obtained in an aqueous one-pot reaction without any templates or auxiliaries. The film made from the silver nanostructures exhibits an electrical conductivity higher than 104 S/cm on both rigid and flexible substrates. The supreme mechanical strength of this silver film recommends its wide application in printing and flexible electronics.
In order to detect the molecular mechanism of heterosis in pigs, an mRNA differential display (DD) technique was performed to investigate the differences in gene expression in the longissimus dorsi muscle tissues from Meishan, Meishan×Large White cross and Large White pigs. Fourteen expressed sequence tags (ESTs), differentially expressed between the hybrid and purebred pigs, were isolated and identified through semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the 14 ESTs are not homologous to any of the known genes or ESTs. These novel ESTs were then deposited in the GenBank database. Tissue expression profile analysis showed that the ESTs were expressed in most tissues, including heart, spleen, liver, kidney, small intestine, ovary and lung, and this also implied that these genes must be important for the life process. Our results indicate the diversity of differential display of genes between the hybrids and purebreds in the Meishan×Large White cross combination. Results also suggest that heterosis in pigs might be derived from the differential expression of many indispensable genes in specific life phases.
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