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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
We have developed an x-ray synchrotron based strategy for determining the element-specific atomic-scale structure of crystalline interfaces. When combined with XPS and AFM we gain chemical sensitivity and nano-scale morphology. Using conventional X-ray standing wave (XSW) analysis (based on single-crystal Bragg diffraction), the hkl Fourier component for a x-ray fluorescence-selected atomic species is measured. By summing together several such hkl Fourier components, it is possible to directly generate a 3D, direct-space, 0.5 Å resolution, image of the atomic distribution with respect to the bulk crystal primitive unit cell. We have recently demonstrated this for the cases of bulk impurity atoms , cations adsorbed at the aqueous / oxide interface , metallic atoms at semiconductor surfaces , and oxide supported catalysts . This new model-independent XSW imaging approach proves to be very insightful for complex cases in which atoms occupy unknown multiple crystallographic sites. In comparison to direct-methods based on conventional diffraction, the Fourier inversion process for generating an XSW image is much simpler, since the hkl phase (as well as amplitude) of each Fourier component is directly measured. Based on these model-independent XSW atomic images, we then develop models to refine the data analysis into 0.05 Å resolved atomic lattice positions that are used to measure effects such as strain. As part of our procedure, we calibrate the XRF yields to achieve a quantitative measure of the occupation fraction (stoichiometry) as well as the occupation lattice site for each XRF detectable species. In separate XPS measurements, we correlate this structural information with the chemical state of the adsorbed species. We are now applying this method to ALD and MBE grown oxide/oxide, metal/oxide and oxide/semiconductor heteroepitaxial structures and observing how the atoms at the interface redistribute after oxidation and reduction processes. In combination with AFM we are also correlating the atomic-scale and nano-scale structure of metal nanocrystals grown on oxide surfaces. Future directions include microbeam in situ real-time studies of growth and ferroelectric polarity switching. L. Cheng, P. Fenter, M. J. Bedzyk, N. C. Sturchio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 255503-1 (2003). Z. Zhang, P. Fenter, L. Cheng, N. C. Sturchio, M. J. Bedzyk, M. L. Machesky, D. J. Wesolowski, Surf. Sci. Lett., 554(2-3) L95 (2004). A.A. Escuadro, D.M. Goodner, J.S. Okasinski, M.J. Bedzyk, Phys. Rev. B, 70 235416-1-7 (2004).. C.-Y. Kim, J.W. Elam, M. J. Pellin, D.K. Goswami, S. T. Christensen, M. C. Hersam, P. C. Stair, M. J. Bedzyk, J. Phys Chem. B (in press) (2006).
Does foreign direct investment (FDI) promote or hinder good governance in a host state? In this article, I analyze the effects of FDI on subnational-level corruption across 63 provinces in Vietnam and find that FDI has both promoted and hindered control of corruption. Initially, FDI creates resources and incentives to improve governance and reduce corruption for early winner provinces. Yet, once FDI begins to pour in, different dynamics start to take effect. While the resources and incentives accrued to FDI-recipient provinces become less effective in further curbing corruption as more FDI flows in, FDI provides leaders of those provinces with growing opportunities and increased abilities to seek and pursue rents, leading to a prevalence of corruption. Using both qualitative and quantitative data, I find strong evidence that the control of corruption is weakest at the extremes: in provinces with the least and the most FDI.
This research investigated patients who underwent surgery for a dilated aorta associated with a connective tissue disease or inflammatory vasculitis in children and adolescents.
Materials and Methods:
The medical records of 11 patients who underwent aortic surgery for dilatation resulting from a connective tissue disease or inflammatory vasculitis between 2000 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed.
The median age and body weight of the patients were 9.6 years (range 5.4 months–15.5 years) and 25.8 kg (range 6.8–81.5), respectively. The associated diseases were Marfan syndrome (n = 3), Loeys-Dietz syndrome (n = 3), Kawasaki disease (n = 1), Takayasu arteritis (n = 1), PHACE syndrome (n = 1), tuberous sclerosis (n = 1), and unknown (n = 1). The most common initially affected area was the ascending aorta. During the 66.4 ± 35.9 months of follow-up, two Marfan syndrome patients died, and four patients (one Marfan syndrome and three Loeys-Dietz syndrome) had repeated aortic operation. Except for one patient, the functional class was well maintained in all patients who were followed up.
Cases of surgical treatment for a dilated aorta associated with a connective tissue disease and inflammatory vasculitis are rare in children and adolescents at our institution. Most of the patients in this study showed a tolerable postoperative course. However, the aorta showed progressive dilation over time even after surgical treatment, especially in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome. In these patients, close and more frequent regular follow-up is required.
Refugees commonly experience difficulties with emotional processing, such as alexithymia, due to stressful or traumatic experiences. However, the functional connectivity of the amygdala, which is central to emotional processing, has yet to be assessed in refugees. Thus, the present study investigated the resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala and its association with emotional processing in North Korean (NK) refugees.
This study included 45 NK refugees and 40 native South Koreans (SK). All participants were administered the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Clinician-administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), and differences between NK refugees and native SK in terms of resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala were assessed. Additionally, the association between the strength of amygdala connectivity and the TAS score was examined.
Resting-state connectivity values from the left amygdala to the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) were higher in NK refugees than in native SK. Additionally, the strength of connectivity between the left amygdala and right dlPFC was positively associated with TAS score after controlling for the number of traumatic experiences and BDI and CAPS scores.
The present study found that NK refugees exhibited heightened frontal–amygdala connectivity, and that this connectivity was correlated with alexithymia. The present results suggest that increased frontal–amygdala connectivity in refugees may represent frontal down-regulation of the amygdala, which in turn may produce alexithymia.
Previous researches on analysis of stability of haptic simulation largely assume that the virtual environment is passive. But the virtual environment can become non-passive due to various reasons including discretization errors and interaction dynamics between virtual tools and objects. This paper provides an analysis of the stability and performance of the haptic simulation involving non-passive virtual environment. The dynamic interaction between the virtual tools and the objects is modeled using the two-port networks. The analysis is carried out using a velocity and force mapping matrix for six-DOF simulation. New stability condition resulting from the analysis is applied to an example simulation of a one-DOF virtual wall. Maximum stiffness satisfying the stability condition established in the previous literature, and the proposed condition is compared with the maximum stiffness experimentally determined with various time steps. The newly proposed stability condition manifests less standard deviation of errors than the widely applied absolute stability condition.
A prominent large negative δ13Corg excursion and a coeval notable spike in mercury (Hg)/total organic carbon ratio are observed in the middle–upper Permian Gohan Formation in central Korea, located in the eastern Sino-Korean block (SKB), which may represent the Capitanian mass extinction event. The SKB was separated from the South China block by the eastern Palaeo-Tethys Ocean. This finding from the SKB supports the widespread Hg loading to the environment emitted from the Emeishan volcanic eruptions in SW China. This study demonstrates that the Hg cycle was globally perturbed in association with global carbon cycle perturbation that occurred during the Capitanian Extinction.
This article examines the effects of electoral systems on issue ownership. This study argues that electoral rules significantly affect issue ownership because they prompt candidates to adopt different types of electoral campaigns. Compared to the single non-transferable vote (SNTV) system, the mixed-member majoritarian (MMM) system prods candidates to change the pattern of electoral campaigns from candidate-centred to issue-centred competition. In particular, partisan issue effects are more effective in gaining votes under the MMM. To support the argument, I find evidence from content analyses of party manifestos and multinomial logistic regression models of electoral surveys between the pre-reform and post-reform elections in Japan.
Due to the lack of an effective prophylactic intervention and diagnosis, human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis continues to afflict a large human population, causing a chronic inflammatory bile duct disease. With an aim to identify target antigens for sensitive serodiagnosis, adenylate kinase 3 of C. sinensis (CsAK3) was successfully expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli by fusion to an RNA-interacting domain derived from human Lys-tRNA synthetase and purified by Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Anti-CsAK3 serum was raised by immunization of mice, and Western blotting confirmed that CsAK3 was expressed in adult-stage C. sinensis. Histochemical analysis showed that CsAK3 was localized to the subtegumental tissue of C. sinensis and was excreted into the bile duct of the host. When tested against sera from various parasite-infected patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the recombinant CsAK3 elicited a specific response to C. sinensis-infected sera. The results suggest that CsAK3, either alone or in combination with other antigens, could be used for improving the clinical diagnosis of clonorchiasis.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) involves insertion/deletion (in/del) polymorphisms in the prion protein gene (PRNP) promoter region that are associated with vulnerability to disease progression. Recently, a second member of the prion gene family, prion-like protein gene (PRND), has been reported to show the PRND R132Q polymorphism, which is associated with the susceptibility to BSE in German Fleckvieh breeds. The objective of this study was to examine the genotype, allele, and haplotype frequencies of PRND gene in Korean cattle and evaluate their susceptibility to BSE. We did this in 277 Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and 124 Korean dairy cattle (Holstein) by direct sequencing and compared the R132Q genotype frequency between BSE-affected German cattle and Korean cattle. The results indicated a total of 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including PRND c.149G > A (p.50Arg > His; R50H), PRND c.285C > T (C4819T), PRND c.395G > A (p.132Arg > Gln; R132Q) and PRND c.528T > A (T5063A) in the open reading frame (ORF) and c.602C > G in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of exon 2 in Korean Holstein and Hanwoo cattle. Except for c.149G > A, the remaining 4 SNPs showed significantly different genotype and allele frequencies between the Korean Holstein and Hanwoo (P < 0·01). There were no significant differences in genotype distribution of c.395G > A SNP between BSE-affected German and Korean Holstein cattle (P = 0·6778), but a significant difference was detected between BSE-affected German cattle and Hanwoo cattle (P = 0·0028). The results suggest that Hanwoo cattle may possess a relatively more BSE-resistant genotype than Korean Holstein cattle.
We trace Sn nanoparticles (NPs) produced from SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) during lithiation initialized by high energy e-beam irradiation. The growth dynamics of Sn NPs is visualized in liquid electrolytes by graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. The observation reveals that Sn NPs grow on the surface of SnO2 NTs via coalescence and the final shape of agglomerated NPs is governed by surface energy of the Sn NPs and the interfacial energy between Sn NPs and SnO2 NTs. Our result will likely benefit more rational material design of the ideal interface for facile ion insertion.
The upper Palaeozoic succession (Pyeongan Supergroup) in central eastern Korea is well correlated with the equivalent successions distributed in North China, suggestive of the Korean upper Palaeozoic being part of the Sino-Korean Block. Detrital zircon U–Pb ages and Sm–Nd isotope compositions of the Pyeongan Supergroup in the Samcheok coalfield of the Taebaeksan Basin were analysed. A single predominant zircon age peak at c. 1.9 Ga (> 70%) is marked in all sedimentary units, followed by varying amounts of minor late Palaeozoic grains (up to 30%). The rarity of Meso- to Neoproterozoic- and Silurian-aged zircons confirms that sediment influx from the South China and Qinling blocks was insignificant. The 2.0–1.8 Ga-dominated zircon age pattern and the Nd isotope composition (average εNd(0) = −15.5±4.0) of the Pyeongan Supergroup most closely reflect the signature of the Yeongnam Massif basements, which supports a previous hypothesis that the Pyeongan Supergroup was mostly derived from a palaeo-orogen located to the east–southeast. Relatively higher εNd(0) values (> −10.1) in the lowermost and the upper parts of the succession are closely matched by the increased occurrence of syn-depositional-aged zircons, which indicates considerable mixing of juvenile materials at c. 320 Ma and 260 Ma. Both arc-related magmatic events are interpreted to have been related to oceanic subduction, suggesting that the eastern margin of the Sino-Korean Block was an active continental margin during late Palaeozoic times.