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Schizotypy refers to schizophrenia-like traits below the clinical threshold in the general population. The pathological development of schizophrenia has been postulated to evolve from the initial coexistence of ‘brain disconnection’ and ‘brain connectivity compensation’ to ‘brain connectivity decompensation’.
In this study, we examined the brain connectivity changes associated with schizotypy by combining brain white matter structural connectivity, static and dynamic functional connectivity analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. A total of 87 participants with a high level of schizotypal traits and 122 control participants completed the experiment. Group differences in whole-brain white matter structural connectivity probability, static mean functional connectivity strength, dynamic functional connectivity variability and stability among 264 brain sub-regions of interests were investigated.
We found that individuals with high schizotypy exhibited increased structural connectivity probability within the task control network and within the default mode network; increased variability and decreased stability of functional connectivity within the default mode network and between the auditory network and the subcortical network; and decreased static mean functional connectivity strength mainly associated with the sensorimotor network, the default mode network and the task control network.
These findings highlight the specific changes in brain connectivity associated with schizotypy and indicate that both decompensatory and compensatory changes in structural connectivity within the default mode network and the task control network in the context of whole-brain functional disconnection may be an important neurobiological correlate in individuals with high schizotypy.
Witherite originates from the biochemical sedimentation of barium in sea water. Due to the complexity of the metallogenic environment, witherite appears in many morphologies. However, the relationship between its diverse morphologies and its mineralisation environment is not well understood. In this paper, Ca2+, a common substitute for Ba2+, and mixed protein (egg white) were used to simulate the inorganic and organic environments of witherite mineralisation, respectively. Comparison of samples prepared under different conditions showed that Ca2+ and egg white have relatively independent regulatory effects on the mineralisation of witherite particles. Egg white primarily limits the growth of the nanocrystals, while Ca2+ directs their non-isodiametric growth. Results shows that Ca2+ is distributed along a gradient in nanocrystalline witherite particles, with the Ca2+ content being proportional to the diameter of the nanocrystals. The results of this study shed light on the different roles of organic matter and inorganic ions in the formation of witherite and offer insight into the genesis of its various morphologies.
We aimed to evaluate the relationship of plasma Mg with the risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia and examine any possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients. This is a post hoc analysis of the Uric acid (UA) Sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). A total of 1685 participants were included in the present study. The main outcome was new-onset hyperuricaemia defined as a UA concentration ≥417 μmol/l in men or ≥357 μmol/l in women. The secondary outcome was a change in UA concentration defined as UA at the exit visit minus that at baseline. During a median follow-up duration of 4·3 years, new-onset hyperuricaemia occurred in 290 (17·2 %) participants. There was a significantly inverse relation of plasma Mg with the risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia (per sd increment; OR 0·85; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·99) and change in UA levels (per sd increment; β −3·96 μmol/l; 95 % CI −7·14, −0·79). Consistently, when plasma Mg was analysed as tertiles, a significantly lower risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia (OR 0·67; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·95) and less increase in UA levels (β −8·35 μmol/l; 95 % CI −16·12, −0·58) were found among participants in tertile 3 (≥885·5 μmol/l) compared with those in tertile 1 (<818·9 μmol/l). Similar trends were found in males and females. Higher plasma Mg levels were associated with a decreased risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia in hypertensive adults.
The fatigue behavior of a low-cost Zr52.1Ti5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Y0.4 (at%) (ZrCuNi-based) bulk-metallic glass (BMG) prepared by industrial-grade material was investigated under three-point bending loading modes. In order to obtain the fatigue stress-life (S-N) data, stress-controlled experiments were conducted using a computer-controlled material test system electrohydraulic testing machine at 60 Hz with a 0.1 R ratio in the air at room temperature. The fatigue limit (~174 MPa) in stress amplitude and fatigue ratio (~0.14) of this BMG is comparative to the similar BMG (Vit-105) prepared by high pure raw materials. The crack initiated from inclusions near the rectangular corners at the outer surface of the rectangular beam due to stress concentration. The striations and vein-like patterns were observed in the crack propagation region and fast fracture region, respectively.
In this paper, we investigate noncommutative symmetric and asymmetric maximal inequalities associated with martingale transforms and fractional integrals. Our proofs depend on some recent advances on algebraic atomic decomposition and the noncommutative Gundy decomposition. We also prove several fractional maximal inequalities.
Limited information is available on the prevalence and effect of hypertriglyceridaemic–waist (HTGW) phenotype on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rural populations.
In the present cross-sectional study, we investigated the prevalence of the HTGW phenotype and T2DM and the strength of their association among rural adults in China.
HTGW was defined as TAG >1·7 mmol/l and waist circumference (WC) ≥90 cm for males and ≥80 cm for females. Logistic regression analysis yielded adjusted odds ratios (aOR) relating risk of T2DM with HTGW.
Adults (n 12 345) aged 22·83–92·58 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area of Henan Province in China.
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM was 23·71 % (males: 15·35 %; females: 28·88 %) and 11·79 % (males: 11·15 %; females: 12·18 %), respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood pressure, physical activity and diabetic family history, the risk of T2DM (aOR; 95 % CI) was increased with HTGW (v. normal TAG and WC: 3·23; CI 2·53, 4·13; males: 3·37; 2·30, 4·92; females: 3·41; 2·39, 4·85). The risk of T2DM with BMI≥28·0 kg/m2, simple enlarged WC and simple disorders of lipid metabolism showed an increasing tendency (aOR=1·31, 1·75 and 2·32).
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM has reached an alarming level among rural Chinese people, and HTGW is a significant risk factor for T2DM.
To assess the effect of famine exposure during early life on dietary patterns, chronic diseases, and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases in adulthood.
Cross-sectional study. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Multivariate quantile regression and log-binomial regression were used to evaluate the impact of famine exposure on dietary patterns, chronic diseases and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases, respectively.
Adults aged 45–60 years (n 939).
‘Healthy’, ‘high-fat and high-salt’, ‘Western’ and ‘traditional Chinese’ dietary patterns were identified. Early-childhood and mid-childhood famine exposure were remarkably correlated with high intake of the traditional Chinese dietary pattern. Compared with the non-exposed group (prevalence ratio (PR); 95 % CI), early-childhood (3·13; 1·43, 6·84) and mid-childhood (2·37; 1·05, 5·36) exposed groups showed an increased PR for diabetes, and the early-childhood (2·07; 1·01, 4·25) exposed group showed an increased PR for hypercholesterolaemia. Additionally, relative to the combination of non-exposed group and low-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern, the combination of famine exposure in early life and high-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern in adulthood had higher PR for diabetes (4·95; 1·66, 9·05) and hypercholesterolaemia (3·71; 1·73, 7·60), and significant additive interactions were observed.
Having suffered the Chinese famine in childhood might affect an individual’s dietary habits and health status, and the joint effect between famine and harmful dietary pattern could have serious consequences on later-life health outcomes.
The intracellular concentration of calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) is a critical regulator of cell signaling and contractility of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we employed an atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation-based approach to investigate the role of [Ca2+]i in regulating the cortical elasticity of rat cremaster VSMCs and the ability of rat VSMCs to adhere to fibronectin (Fn) matrix. Elevation of [Ca2+]i by ionomycin treatment increased rat VSMC stiffness and cell adhesion to Fn-biofunctionalized AFM probes, whereas attenuation of [Ca2+]i by 1,2-Bis (2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA-AM) treatment decreased the mechanical and matrix adhesive properties of VSMCs. Furthermore, we found that ionomycin/BAPTA-AM treatments altered expression of α5 integrin subunits and α smooth muscle actin in rat VSMCs. These data suggest that [Ca2+]i regulates VSMC elasticity and adhesion to the extracellular matrix by a potential mechanism involving changing dynamics of the integrin–actin cytoskeleton axis.
In this paper, a 3 dB H-plane substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) power divider/combiner with improved isolation is reported. By adding two isolated ports into the Y-junction, it will perform like a multi-port coupler, so that the isolation between its dividing ports can be effectively improved as the newly-added ports are properly matched. To verify the availability and effectiveness of this concept, two prototypes, one is terminated by coaxial terminations and the other is loaded with lumped resistors, are developed. Their measured results are separately in good agreement with their corresponding simulations. Meanwhile, isolations better than 16 dB with fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 35 and 25% are achieved, respectively, as well as low phase and amplitude imbalances. Compared with some reported similar SIW power dividers, the proposed ones exhibit wider FBW with similar isolation, insertion loss, phase, and amplitude balance performance.
The ultra-wideband bandpass-response power divider with high-frequency selectivity is presented in this paper. This power divider consists of an impedance transformer, a filter network, and two isolation resistors. In order to realize the ultra-wideband filtering performance, parallel coupling lines and parallel open-circuit branches are applied to the second impedance converter. A resistor is added to the ends of the coupling lines to achieve good isolation and output return loss. The equivalent-circuit method is employed to analyze the presented power divider. The power divider, working at 3.45–8.29 GHz, is designed and fabricated. Two transmission zeros are generated at 2.8 and 9 GHz, respectively, and the out-of-band suppression is >13 dB. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulation ones.
To track multiple ships and estimate the feature parameters of multiple emitters on board using electronic intelligence satellites under clutter interference, a long and random revisit time, and other complex conditions, a novel tracking algorithm using both kinematic (position and velocity) and feature information based on an improved Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) approach is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the characteristics of multi-ship tracking with multiple emitters using satellite electronic information are analysed, and a new model of an emitter is built as an extended target in geographical coordinates. Secondly, a pre-processing of measurements is utilised via hierarchical clustering using the location and feature information of emitters. Thirdly, feature information is incorporated into the MHT framework using Jensen-Shannon divergence distance and fuzzy C-means clustering to calculate track scores. Finally, we present the prediction and update of target states, especially the update of feature parameters, to realise joint kinematic and feature tracking of ships. The results of the simulation show that the proposed method has much better tracking performance than the standard MHT algorithm.
Pleiotropy, the effect of one variant on multiple traits, is widespread in complex diseases. Joint analysis of multiple traits can improve statistical power to detect genetic variants and uncover the underlying genetic mechanism. Currently, a large number of existing methods target one common variant or only rare variants. Increasing evidence shows that complex diseases are caused by common and rare variants. Here we propose a region-based method to test both rare and common variant associated multiple traits based on variable reduction method (abbreviated as MULVR). However, in the presence of noise traits, the MULVR method may lose power, so we propose the MULVR-O method, which jointly analyses the optimal number of traits associated with genetic variants by the MULVR method, to guard against the effect of noise traits. Extensive simulation studies show that our proposed method (MULVR-O) is applied to not only multiple quantitative traits but also qualitative traits, and is more powerful than several other comparison methods in most scenarios. An application to the two genes (SHBG and CHRM3) and two phenotypes (systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure) from the GAW19 dataset illustrates that our proposed methods (MULVR and MULVR-O) are feasible and efficient as a region-based method.
Very few recent studies are available that compare caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of different types of dementia. We aimed to investigate caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies, as compared with caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
This study was carried out from March 2011 to January 2014. In total, 492 dyads of patient and caregiver (frontotemporal lobar degeneration, n = 131; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 36; Alzheimer's disease, n = 325) participated in this study. We compared patients with respect to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and caregivers with respect to the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients presented significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms compared to Alzheimer's disease patients. Caregivers of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients experienced significantly more burden compared to Alzheimer's disease caregivers. Furthermore, among caregivers of both frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients burden was predicted by the neuropsychiatric symptoms, PHQ-9 scores, and GAD-7 scores.
The frequency and severity of behavioral disturbances in patient and caregiver stress accounted for the increased caregiver burden, which suggests that frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies caregivers should receive more support than is currently available.
A wide-stopband bandpass-filtering power divider with high-frequency selectivity has been proposed in this paper. The input and output feeding lines and eight 1/4 wavelength resonators are used to realize the signal transmission. In order to obtain good frequency selectivity, source-load coupling transmission path is used to generate transmission zeros near the passband. A four-way power divider with bandpass-filtering response and high-frequency selectivity is designed, fabricated, and measured. The measured results agree with the simulated ones closely in the desirable frequency range. The measured center frequency of the power divider is 2.38 GHz with input return loss of 31.2 dB, while the measured insertion loss is about 1 dB (not including ideal 6 dB four-way power dividing insertion loss). Moreover, the measured 3-dB bandwidth is 12% and the measured stopband attenuation is >15 dB from 2.59 to 7.7 GHz. In addition, two transmission zeros of 1.9 and 2.8 GHz are located near the passband. The measured output isolations are all >15.7 dB.
This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3·99–21·66 g threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and β-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P<0·05); (2) could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-κB signalling; (3) could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels partly by target of rapamycin signalling. Finally, on the basis of the specific growth rate, against the enteritis morbidity and IgM contents, the optimum threonine requirements were estimated to be 14·53 g threonine/kg diet (4·48 g threonine/100 g protein), 15.05 g threonine/kg diet (4·64 g threonine/100 g protein) and 15·17 g threonine/kg diet (4·68 g threonine/100 g protein), respectively.