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Geochronological, major and trace element, and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic data are reported for the monzonitic rocks of the Fushan pluton in the Taihang Mountains, central North China Craton, in order to investigate their sources, petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Zircon U–Pb dating results reveal that the Fushan pluton was emplaced during the Early Cretaceous (∼126–124 Ma). The monzonites and quartz monzonites are mainly characterized by calc-alkaline and magnesian features and display light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and flat heavy REE (HREE) patterns with slightly positive Eu anomalies. They have similar whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70653–0.70819), εNd(t) values (−13.6 to −18.6) and zircon εHf(t) values (−21.8 to −17.3). The primary magma of the Fushan pluton was derived from the partial melting of a spinel-facies amphibole-bearing ancient enriched lithospheric mantle. The monzonitic rocks also have high Ba–Sr and low Y and Yb contents, with high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios. These geochemical features of monzonitic rocks are not only inherited from the magma source but also significantly enhanced by crystal fractionation during magmatic evolution; e.g. hornblende fractionation increased the Ba–Sr concentrations and Sr/Y ratios. During the Early Cretaceous, the slab sinking and roll-back of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate could have created an ancient big mantle wedge beneath East Asia and induced a lithospheric extensional process in the central North China Craton within an intracontinental setting.
Photocatalytic water splitting to form hydrogen can effectively alleviate energy and environmental problems attracting wide attention. However, the current photocatalysts have low photocatalytic efficiencies due to the narrow absorption spectrum, which is far from the actual application requirements. Herein, we use the as-prepared zinc porphyrin self-assemblies to visible-light-drive photocatalytic hydrogen evolution with Pt as the cocatalyst and ascorbic acid (AA) as the sacrificial agent. The results exhibit morphology-dependent performance and hexagonal stacks achieved optimal H2 evolution rate (47.1 mmol/h/g), then followed by nanodiscs, nanorod and tetragonal stacks, meanwhile the nanorods with different aspect ratios show size-dependent properties. The UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra and the shortening of decay time of the corresponding ZnTPyP aggregates reveal that the well-defined self-assembled porphyrin networks are J-aggregation and boost efficient energy transfer with respect to monomer. Such porphyrin self-assemblies are standing for one of the most promising photosensitizers in photocatalysis field and provide an important reference for designing the next generation of hydrogen production.
In a rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system, a study was conducted to determine the effects of different fertilization regimens (no fertilization, replacement of a portion of chemical fertilizer with composted pig manure, chemical fertilizer only, and straw return combined with chemical fertilizer) on the weed communities and wheat yields after 4 and 5 yr. The impact of the long-term recurrent fertilization regimen initiated in 2010 on the composition and diversity of weed communities and the impact of the components and total amount of fertilizer on wheat yields were assessed in 2014 and 2015. Totals of 19 and 16 weed species were identified in experimental wheat fields in 2014 and 2015, respectively, but the occurrence of weed species varied according to the fertilization regimen. American sloughgrass [Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald], water starwort [Myosoton aquaticum (L.) Moench], and lyrate hemistepta (Hemistepta lyrata Bunge.) were adapted to all fertilization treatments and were the dominant weed species in the experimental wheat fields. The greatest number of weed species were observed under the no-fertilization treatment, in which 40% of the weed community was composed of broadleaf weeds and the lowest wheat yields were obtained. With fertilizer application, the number of weed species was reduced, the height of weeds increased significantly, the density of broadleaf weeds was significantly reduced, the biodiversity indices of weed communities decreased significantly, and higher wheat yields were obtained. Only the chemical fertilizer plus composted pig manure treatment and the chemical fertilizer–only treatment increased the density of grassy weeds and the total weed community density. The treatment with chemical fertilizer only also resulted in the highest density of B. syzigachne. Rice straw return combined with chemical fertilizer yielded the lowest total weed density, which suggests that it inhibited occurrence of weeds. The different fertilizer regimens not only affected the weed species composition, distribution, and diversity, but also the weed density. Our study provides new information from a rice–wheat rotation system on the relationship between soil amendments and agricultural weed infestation.
Porphyrins are a class of conjugated molecules that structurally and functionally resemble natural photosynthetic and enzymatic chromophores. Crystalline solids self-assembled from anionic and cationic porphyrins yield a new class of multifunctional optoelectronic micro- and nanomaterials. In this article, we provide details on the concept of binary ionic self-assembly (ISA) and ionized forms of porphyrins, as well as formation of hierarchical structures, including nanotubes, rods and ribbons, sheets, and three-dimensional clover-like shapes, spheres, and sheaf-like structures. We summarize key physical properties from ultraviolet–visible characterizations of J-aggregate, exciton delocalization and extended π–π stacking, and related electronic and light-harvesting properties of the structures. Depending on the molecular subunits, the functionalities of the ISA materials are altered. These ISA nanostructures possess attractive light-harvesting and charge- and energy-transport functionalities and allow access to a novel class of nanomaterials with potential for applications in sensors, photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and solar power.
This article outlines the evolution of a rescue team in responding to adenovirus prevention with a deployable field hospital. The local governments mobilized a shelter hospital and a rescue team consisting of 59 members to assist with rescue and response efforts after an epidemic outbreak of adenovirus. We describe and evaluate the challenges of preparing for deployment, field hospital maintenance, treatment mode, and primary treatment methods. The field hospital established at the rescue scene consisted of a medical command vehicle, a computed tomography shelter, an X-ray shelter, a special laboratory shelter, an oxygen and electricity supply vehicle, and epidemic prevention and protection equipment. The rescue team comprised paramedics, physicians, X-ray technicians, respiratory therapists, and logistical personnel. In 22 days, more than 3000 patients with suspected adenovirus infection underwent initial examinations. All patients were properly treated, and no deaths occurred. After emergency measures were implemented, the spread of adenovirus was eventually controlled. An emergency involving infectious diseases in less-developed regions demands the rapid development of a field facility with specialized medical personnel when local hospital facilities are either unavailable or unusable. An appropriate and detailed prearranged action plan is important for infectious diseases prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:109–114)
Based on 15 diffusion couples located in face centered cubic single-phase region of ternary Ni–Al–Mo system, high-throughput determination of composition-dependent interdiffusivity matrices at 1273, 1373, and 1473 K was performed by using the recently developed numerical inverse method. The determined main interdiffusivities over the investigated composition and temperature ranges are all positive, and
is generally larger than
generally increases with concentration of Al, while
increases with concentrations of both Al and Mo. In contrast, the cross interdiffusivities can be either positive or negative. Average relative errors of
were evaluated to be 2.4, 5.1, 16.1, and 1.7% using error propagation. Furthermore, our prediction of composition profiles and interdiffusion fluxes based on evaluated interdiffusivity matrices agrees quite well with measured data. Traditional Matano–Kirkaldy method was also applied to further verify the reliability of obtained interdiffusivities. Besides, three-dimensional planes of activation energies of main interdiffusivities were also evaluated using the Arrhenius equation.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
Disaster can strike people in any community at any time anywhere in the world. Disasters occur with high frequency, take on multiple forms, and exert wide influence, typically causing property damage, injuries, and death. As the world’s largest developing country, China incurs great costs when a disaster hits. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Chinese government focused its attention on the construction of an emergency response system, the creation of disaster prevention and mitigation systems, and the development of a disaster medicine program. Here, we describe the current status of disaster medicine in China, focusing on the following four aspects: the Emergency Management System, Education & Training, Rescue Practices, and Research. We also discuss the future of disaster medicine in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:157–165)
This paper investigates the tidal effect on accretion disk in CVs and sets up a simplified model in which the secondary’s gravitation is substituted by a mean tidal torque. We find that a linear tidal torque will not be able to maintain an equilibrium disk. By using the result of the radius of the equilibrium disk approximately equals to the tidal radius, which was obtained by using the two dimensional numerical simulation invoking nonlinear tidal effect, we give the modified tidal dissipation function for our simplified model which could be used to interpret the outburst of the dwarf nova with tidal effect. The paper also shows that the radius of an equilibrium disk with a torus is slightly small than the Lubow-Shu radius, and the tidal effect may also cause the cycle of quiescence-superoutburst in addition to the cycle of quiescence-outbursts-superoutburst.
To determine dynamic changes in clinical characteristics by examining an outbreak of adenovirus infection that occurred from December 20, 2012, to February 25, 2013, in Tianjin, China.
Active surveillance for febrile respiratory illnesses was conducted, and medical records of patients were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used for pathogen identification and viral genome study, respectively. Student’s t-test was used to compare the mean values of normally distributed continuous variables. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used if continuous variables were not normally distributed. Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used to compare categorical variables.
The outbreak was sourced from the index case diagnosed as the common cold on December 20, 2012; a total of 856 cases were reported in the following 66 days. The pathogen was identified as human adenovirus (HAdV) 55. The symptoms manifested differently in severe and mild cases. Routine blood examinations, liver function indexes, and heart function indexes showed different dynamic patterns over time in hospitalized patients.
Clinical characteristics and laboratory examinations may reveal unique patterns over the course of HAdV-55 infection. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:464–469)
Objective: To study the relationship of Nε-(carboxymethyl)-lysine level (CML) with microstructure changes of white matter (WM), and cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to discuss the potential mechanism underlying T2DM-associated cognitive impairment. Methods: The study was performed in T2DM patients (n=22) with disease course ≥5 years and age ranging from 65 to 75 years old. A control group consisted of 25 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of several WM regions was analyzed by diffusion tensor imaging scan. Plasma CML levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cognitive function was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA). Results: The total Mini-Mental State Examination score in the patient group (25.72±3.13) was significantly lower than the control group (28.16±2.45) (p<0.05). In addition, the total MoCA score in the patient group (22.15±3.56) was significantly lower than the control group 25.63±4.12) (p<0.01). In the patient group, FA values were significantly decreased in the corpus callosum, cingulate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, parietal WM, hippocampus, and temporal lobes relative to corresponding regions of healthy controls (p<0.05). Plasma CML level was negatively correlated with average FA values in the global brain (r=−0.58, p<0.01) and MoCA scores (r=−0.47, p<0.05). Conclusions: In T2DM, WM microstructure changes occur in older patients, and elevations in CML may play a role in the development of cognitive impairment.
The mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited in animals, despite the fact that paternal mitochondria enter oocytes during fertilization. Autophagy and ubiquitin-mediated degradation are responsible for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans; however, the involvement of these two processes in the degradation of paternal mitochondria in mammals is not well understood. We investigated the localization patterns of light chain 3 (LC3) and ubiquitin in mouse and porcine embryos during preimplantation development. We found that LC3 and ubiquitin localized to the spermatozoon midpiece at 3 h post-fertilization, and that both proteins were colocalized with paternal mitochondria and removed upon fertilization during the 4-cell stage in mouse and the zygote stage in porcine embryos. Sporadic paternal mitochondria were present beyond the morula stage in the mouse, and paternal mitochondria were restricted to one blastomere of 4-cell embryos. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), did not affect the distribution of paternal mitochondria compared with the positive control, while an autophagy inducer, rapamycin, accelerated the removal of paternal mitochondria compared with the control. After the intracytoplasmic injection of intact spermatozoon into mouse oocytes, LC3 and ubiquitin localized to the spermatozoon midpiece, but remnants of undegraded paternal mitochondria were retained until the blastocyst stage. Our results show that paternal mitochondria colocalize with autophagy receptors and ubiquitin and are removed after in vitro fertilization, but some remnants of sperm mitochondrial sheath may persist up to morula stage after intracytoplasmic spermatozoon injection (ICSI).
What reasoning rules can be used for the deduction of bisimulation formulas in coalgebraic specifications is problematic because those rules used in algebraic specifications possibly cannot be applied to bisimulation formulas. Although some categorical bisimulation proof methods for coalgebras have been proposed, they are not based on specification languages of coalgebras so that they cannot be used as reasoning rules. In this paper, a specification language based on paths of polynomial functors is proposed to specify polynomial coalgebras. Paths of polynomial functors give detailed observations and transitions on the state space of coalgebras so that the techniques used in transition system specifications can be applied to such a path-based language. In particular, because bisimulations can be characterized by paths, the notions of progressions, respectful functions and faithful contexts can be defined based on paths, and then bisimulation up-to proof techniques, including bisimulation up-to bisimilarities and up-to contexts for transition systems can be transformed into reasoning rules in the language. Several examples illustrate how to reason syntactically about bisimulations in the language by using the rules induced by the bisimulation proof techniques.
Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT), a powerful tool in basic scientific research, has been used widely to increase and preserve the population of endangered species. Yak (Bos grunniens) is one of these species. Development to term of interspecies cloned yak embryos has not been achieved, possibly due to abnormal epigenetic reprogramming. Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment of intraspecies cloned embryos with (NaBu) significantly improves nuclear–cytoplasmic reprogramming and viability in vitro. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effect of optimal NaBu concentration and exposure time on preimplantation development of yak iSCNT embryos and on the expression patterns of developmentally important genes. The results showed that 8-cell rate, blastocyst formation rate and total cell number increased significantly compared with their untreated counterparts when yak iSCNT embryos were treated with 5 nM NaBu for 12 h after activation, but that the 2-cell stage embryo rate was not significantly different. The treatment of NaBu also increased significantly the expression levels of Oct-4 and decreased the expression levels of HDAC-2, Dnmt-1 and IGF-1; the expression patterns of these genes were more similar to that of their bovine–yak in vitro fertilization (BY-IVF) counterparts. The results described above indicated that NaBu treatment improved developmental competence in vitro and ‘corrected’ the gene expression patterns of yak iSCNT embryos.
An overview of the sources for heavy elements in the early Galaxy is given. It is shown that observations of abundances in metal-poor stars can be used along with a basic understanding of stellar models to guide the search for the source of the heavy r-process nuclei (r-nuclei). Observations show that this source produces very little of the elements from C through Zn, including Fe. This strongly suggests that O–Ne–Mg core-collapse supernovae (SNe) from progenitors of ∼8–11 M⊙ are the source for the heavy r-nuclei. It is shown that a two-component model based on the abundances of Fe (from Fe core-collapse SNe) and Eu (from O–Ne–Mg core-collapse SNe) gives very good quantitative predictions for the abundances of all the other elements in metal-poor stars.
Penaeus monodon (mean initial wet weight 1·19 (se 0·01) g) were fed seven diets in triplicate: a control diet (D1) without carotenoids; three diets formulated to supply 0·1 % astaxanthin alone (D2), 0·2 % astaxanthin alone (D3), and a combination of 0·1 % astaxanthin and 1 % cholesterol (D4); three diets with 0·07 % canthaxanthin alone (D5), 0·13 % canthaxanthin alone (D6), and a combination of 0·07 % canthaxanthin and 1 % cholesterol (D7). Weight gain (WG, %), specific growth rate (SGR, %/d) and survival were chosen as parameters of shrimp growth performance. Total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were chosen as indices of shrimp plasma antioxidant capacity. Meanwhile, digestibility, retention efficiency and tissue carotenoids were also investigated to determine the additive effect of cholesterol on the efficiency of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. After 74 d rearing, WG and SGR of shrimp fed D2–D4 and D7 were higher than those of shrimp fed D1 (P < 0·05). Shrimp fed D4 had the highest survival. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of astaxanthin in D2–D4 were higher than those of canthaxanthin in D5–D7 (P < 0·05). Although ADC of astaxanthin were quite high (>98 %) in D2–D4 and no differences were found among them (P>0·05), the carotenoid retention efficiencies in the whole body, muscle and shell (D2–D3 treatments) were considerably low; however, cholesterol supplementation significantly improved the carotenoid retention efficiencies in the whole body, muscle and shell (D4 treatment). Accordingly, the addition of cholesterol also significantly enhanced the carotenoid contents of tissues. Shrimp fed supplemented carotenoid diets (D2–D7) had higher TAS and lower SOD, ALT and AST than shrimp fed D1 (P < 0·05). A low dissolved oxygen stress test was conducted for 7 d after the rearing trial and shrimp survival was also compared among the treatments. The survival of shrimp fed the diets supplemented with astaxanthin or canthaxanthin was higher than that of shrimp fed D1 during the stress test (P < 0·05). In conclusion, all data suggested that astaxanthin was better than canthaxanthin as the dietary carotenoid source in the commercial diet of P. monodon, and the supplement of cholesterol could positively enhance the efficiency of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin.
The influence of Co content on stacking fault energy (SFE) of the γ matrix in four Ni–Co base superalloys, including newly developed alloys, has been studied by utilizing high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated the SFE was not linear with Co content of the γ matrix. The lowest SFE could be attained at around 34.0 at.% Co. This effect was attributed to variation of electron holes, saturated Co content in the matrix, and the effect of Co on the partition coefficient of other alloying elements. A high density of twins was related to low SFE and could improve the mechanical properties.