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The dipeptide DL-methionyl-DL-Methionine (Met-Met) has extremely low water solubility and better absorption than other methionine sources (such as DL-methionine and L-methionine) available in the market. Therefore, six diets (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6) containing 0 %, 0.07%, 0.15%, 0.21%, 0.28% and 0.38% Met-Met were formulated to investigate the effects of Met-Met on Oreochromis niloticus. The results indicated that percent weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed with D2 and D3 diets were higher than those fed with D1, D4-D6 diets. The levels of total essential amino acid in whole body of fish fed with D3 and D4 diets were significantly higher than those fed the D1 diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde content were no significant difference in fed the diet with or without Met-Met supplementation. Majority of reads derived from the fish intestines belonged to members of Fusobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria. Diversity of intestinal microbiota and total antioxidant capacity in fish fed with D3 diet was significantly higher than that of other groups. Since due to the growth results the authors conclude the optimal proportion of Met was 0.61%, and the addition of Met-Met was 0.15% in O. niloticus.
Information collection may affect the design quality and designer's performance through changing the structure of information and the way how information is searched and organized. Based on the theoretical analysis conducted by Wang et al., the present work continues to investigate the influence of designer's natural choice of information collection strategy on his/her mental stress both theoretically and empirically. Designers’ stresses are quantified from HRV data and are compared under different information collection strategies.
Two benzodifuran (BDF) polymers, PBDF-C and PBDF-S, with alkyl and alkylthio substituted thiophene side-chains and benzodithiophene-4,8-dione (BDD) as the acceptor were designed and synthesized. Their optical, electrochemical properties and photovoltaic performances were systematically investigated. The polymer solar cells (PSCs) with a device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer:PC71BM/Ca/Al were fabricated. The PBDF-C based device showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01% after adding 1 vol% 1,8-diodooctane (DIO) as the solvent additive, and PBDF-S gave an enhanced PCE of 3.48% without any post-treatments. The enhancements were from the higher open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). The thermal- and solvent-treatment-free processing is more favourable for the large area roll-to-roll manufacturing or printing technology for PSCs.
Limited information is available on the prevalence and effect of hypertriglyceridaemic–waist (HTGW) phenotype on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rural populations.
In the present cross-sectional study, we investigated the prevalence of the HTGW phenotype and T2DM and the strength of their association among rural adults in China.
HTGW was defined as TAG >1·7 mmol/l and waist circumference (WC) ≥90 cm for males and ≥80 cm for females. Logistic regression analysis yielded adjusted odds ratios (aOR) relating risk of T2DM with HTGW.
Adults (n 12 345) aged 22·83–92·58 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area of Henan Province in China.
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM was 23·71 % (males: 15·35 %; females: 28·88 %) and 11·79 % (males: 11·15 %; females: 12·18 %), respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood pressure, physical activity and diabetic family history, the risk of T2DM (aOR; 95 % CI) was increased with HTGW (v. normal TAG and WC: 3·23; CI 2·53, 4·13; males: 3·37; 2·30, 4·92; females: 3·41; 2·39, 4·85). The risk of T2DM with BMI≥28·0 kg/m2, simple enlarged WC and simple disorders of lipid metabolism showed an increasing tendency (aOR=1·31, 1·75 and 2·32).
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM has reached an alarming level among rural Chinese people, and HTGW is a significant risk factor for T2DM.
Identifying the relative importance of urban and non-urban land-use types for potential denitrification derived N2O at a regional scale is critical for quantifying the impacts of human activities on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission under changing environments. In this study we used a regional dataset from China including 197 soil samples and six land-use types to evaluate the main predictors (land use, heavy metals, soil pH, soil moisture, substrate availability, functional and broad microbial abundances) of potential denitrification using multivariate and pathway analysis. Our results provide empirical evidence that soils on farms have the greatest potential denitrifying ability (PDA) (10.92±6.08ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1) followed by urban soil (6.80±5.35ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1). Our models indicate that land use (low vs. high human activity), followed by total nitrogen (TN) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) was the most important driver of PDA. In addition, our path analysis suggests that at least part of the impacts of land use on potential denitrification were mediated via microbial abundance, soil pH and substrates including TN, dissolved organic carbon and nitrate. This study identifies the main predictors of denitrification at a regional scale which is needed to quantify the impact of human activities on ecosystem functionality under changing conditions.
It has been reported that the optimal properties of materials are usually not linear to the configuration entropy of materials; in another word, the high-entropy alloys may not have the best properties among all the alloys, including medium-entropy alloys, thus all of these alloys can be universally named as entropic alloys. For entropic alloys, the design, discovery, and optimization of new materials are more complicated than conventional materials. A technique of high-throughput processing is urgently needed to improve the efficiency. In this paper, a combined method by using multitarget deposition has been proposed for parallel preparation of high-entropy to medium-entropy alloys. Films with compositional gradient were constructed in a pseudo-ternary Ti–Al–(Cr, Fe, Ni) system in this study. To facilitate the characterization of the material library, it has been divided into 144 independent units with an area of 1 cm2 and the maximum value of compositional gradient reaches ∼13 at.%/cm. The material library exhibits a high coverage of composition, and the range of element content varies from 3.3 to 89.2 at.% on average. The stability and homogeneity of the material library were analyzed from phase structure and microtopography. Preliminary screening of the phase structure and properties were performed. The phases are mainly composed of amorphous phase and body-centered cubic phase. Hardness changes nonlinearly with compositions. The material library synthesized in this study is expected to provide an effective platform for high-throughput screening of multicomponent materials.
A series of CoCrFeNiMox (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2) high-entropy alloys were designed to develop a eutectic high-entropy alloy system and to acquire a superfine eutectic structure. The results show that for the CoCrFeNiMox alloys, with the increase of Mo content from 0.2 to 1.2, the microstructures shift from a typical dendrite structure to a hypoeutectic microstructure (x = 0.6), and then to a fully eutectic microstructure (x = 0.8) with a lamellar spacing only 110 nm, and finally culminate in the hypereutectic structure (x = 1.0, x = 1.2). The XRD results show that CoCrFeNiMox alloys have a single FCC phase when x is 0.2 or 0.4. When Mo content is over 0.6, it begins to separate Cr9Mo21Ni20 intermetallic compounds. The hardness of the CoCrFeNiMox alloys is increasing significantly from 172.8 to 763.7 HV with the increase of Mo content. Meanwhile, the fracture strength increased but the ductility decreases. Among these alloys, the CoCrFeNiMo0.6 alloy shows excellent integrated mechanical properties of compressive fracture strength and strain, which are 2051 Mpa and 23%, respectively.
The Micro-Nano satellite TianTuo-3 (TT-3) developed by the National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) was successfully launched on 20 September 2015. The space-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) on board TT-3 works well and stably receives AIS signals from global vessels. In this work, we perform statistical analysis on the detection probability of the vessels in the concerned areas by using the TT-3 AIS data. The results suggest that the detection probability of vessels decreases as the distribution density increases, especially in the offshore areas of dense traffic and the TT3-AIS vessel detection probability in the oceans can be higher than 40%, indicating that the TT-3 AIS has achieved a high probability of coverage of vessels for a single receiving antenna. The analysis results will present helpful references both in evaluating the potential application of satellite-based AIS and for designing the next generation space-based AIS which might greatly improve the detection probability of ocean-going vessels.
This study aimed to investigate the applications of intelligent 256-slice computed tomography (iCT) perfusion imaging in high-voltage electrical injuries (HVEIs).
256-slice iCT was used to perform perfusion scanning for 48 patients with HVEI to detect the perfusion parameters.
The blood flow (BF) and peak enhancement intensity (PEI) values of the plane lower than the amputation level of the diseased side (ALD) were smaller than those of the corresponding healthy side (P<0.05); therefore, the differences were statistically significant. The BF value of the plane beyond the ALD was bigger than that of the ALD (t=2.99 and P=0.042); therefore, the difference was statistically significant. The BF, PEI, and blood volume values of the plane below the ALD were smaller than those of the ALD (P<0.05); therefore, the differences were statistically significant.
The technique of 256-slice iCT perfusion imaging could provide richer and more comprehensive imaging data for the clinical treatment of HVEIs, thus exhibiting its benefit in reducing the disability of patients with HVEIs. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:478–485)
CVD remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with abnormal lipid metabolism as a major risk factor. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between spicy food consumption and serum lipids in Chinese adults. Data were extracted from the 2009 phase of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, consisting of 6774 apparently healthy Chinese adults aged 18–65 years. The frequency of consumption and degree of pungency of spicy food were self-reported, and regular spicy food consumption was assessed using three consecutive 24-h recalls. Total cholesterol, TAG, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in fasting serum were measured. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate associations between spicy food consumption and serum lipid profiles. The results showed that the frequency and the average amount of spicy food intake were both inversely associated with LDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (all Pfor trend<0·05) after adjustment for potential confounders and cluster effects. HDL-cholesterol in participants who usually consumed spicy food (≥5 times/week) and who consumed spicy food perceived as moderate in pungency were significantly higher than those who did not (both P<0·01). The frequency and the average amount of spicy food intake and the degree of pungency in spicy food were positively associated with TAG (all Pfor trend<0·05). Spicy food consumption was inversely associated with serum cholesterol and positively associated with serum TAG, and additional studies are needed to confirm the findings as well as to elucidate the potential roles of spicy food consumption in lipid metabolism.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
A stalagmite with high 238U content from Yangkou Cave, China, revealed the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) between 49.1 and 59.5 ka, and the δ18O values recorded Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events 13–17. The Yangkou record shows a relatively gradual transition into the D/O 14 and 16 events. The discrepancy between the abrupt and gradual transitions of D/O 14 in the records from northern and southern China, respectively, suggests different responses of the ASM to climate changes in the high northern latitudes. The higher resolution δ18O record and more precise 230Th dating indicate that the timing of D/O 14 and 17 in the Hulu records at 53 and 58 ka should be shifted to 54.3 and 59 ka, respectively. The gradual strengthening of the ASM at the onsets of D/O 16 and 14 in our record is different from the abrupt temperature rise in the northern high latitudes. Some other factors must contribute to this relatively gradual ASM change in southern China, but the actual reason is still unknown.
We develop an estimation approach based on a modified expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and a mixture of normal distributions associated with skill groups to assess performance in hedge funds. By allowing luck to affect both skilled and unskilled funds, we estimate the number of skill groups, the fraction of funds from each group, and the mean and variability of skill within each group. For each individual fund, we propose a performance measure combining the fund’s estimated alpha with the cross-sectional distribution of fund skill. In out-of-sample tests, an investment strategy using our performance measure outperforms those using estimated alpha and t-statistic.
This paper focuses on the problem of robust time-optimal trajectory planning of robotic manipulators to track a given path under a probabilistic limited actuation, that is, the probability for the actuation to be limited is no less than a given bound κ. We give a general and practical method to reduce the probabilistic constraints to a set of deterministic constraints and show that the deterministic constraints are equivalent to a set of linear constraints under certain conditions. As a result, the original problem is reduced to a linear optimal control problem which can be solved with linear programming in polynomial time. In the case of κ = 1, the original problem is proved to be equivalent to the linear optimal control problem. Overall, a very general, practical, and efficient algorithm is given to solve the above problem and numerical simulation results are used to show the effectiveness of the method.
With the rapid development of electronic information and technology, especially the explosive advance of novel electronic devices, ultra-wideband radar detector and satellite communication, the elimination of adverse electromagnetic waves (EWs) effectively is very necessary both for electronic safety and national defense security. As one of the important material basis for controlling adverse EW pollution, compatibility, shielding, and stealth capability of weaponry, microwave absorbing materials has long been an area of intense research activity. Graphene-based materials have attracted great interests for microwave absorption in recent years due to the unique structure and physicochemical properties of graphene, such as high specific surface area, ultrathin thickness, large interface, optical transmittance, and tunable conductive properties, etc. In this paper, the properties and absorption behavior of different kinds of microwave absorbing materials based on graphene were reviewed and discussed in detail. In addition, the perspective of the current challenges and key issues for achieving better microwave absorption performance of the graphene-based materials are provided.