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This paper presents new LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb chronology, whole-rock geochemical and zircon Hf isotopic data for the felsic lavas of the Huili Group from the southwestern Yangtze Block. LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb dating shows that these rocks were emplaced in Late Mesoproterozoic time (∼1028 to 1019 Ma). Relative to typical I-type and S-type granitoids, all the samples are characterized by low Sr and Eu, and high high-field-strength element contents, high TFeO/MgO, enriched rare earth element compositions and negative Eu anomalies, indicating that they share the geochemical signatures of A-type granitoid. They can be further divided into two groups: Group I and Group II. Group I are A1-type felsic rocks and were produced by fractional crystallization of alkaline basaltic magmas. The Group II felsic lavas belong to the A2-type and were derived by partial melting of a crustal source with mixing of mantle-derived magmas. Both Group I and Group II felsic lavas may erupt in a continental back-arc setting. The coexistence of A1- and A2-type rocks in the southwestern Yangtze Block suggests that they can occur in the same tectonic setting.
To assess the effect of famine exposure during early life on dietary patterns, chronic diseases, and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases in adulthood.
Cross-sectional study. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Multivariate quantile regression and log-binomial regression were used to evaluate the impact of famine exposure on dietary patterns, chronic diseases and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases, respectively.
Adults aged 45–60 years (n 939).
‘Healthy’, ‘high-fat and high-salt’, ‘Western’ and ‘traditional Chinese’ dietary patterns were identified. Early-childhood and mid-childhood famine exposure were remarkably correlated with high intake of the traditional Chinese dietary pattern. Compared with the non-exposed group (prevalence ratio (PR); 95 % CI), early-childhood (3·13; 1·43, 6·84) and mid-childhood (2·37; 1·05, 5·36) exposed groups showed an increased PR for diabetes, and the early-childhood (2·07; 1·01, 4·25) exposed group showed an increased PR for hypercholesterolaemia. Additionally, relative to the combination of non-exposed group and low-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern, the combination of famine exposure in early life and high-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern in adulthood had higher PR for diabetes (4·95; 1·66, 9·05) and hypercholesterolaemia (3·71; 1·73, 7·60), and significant additive interactions were observed.
Having suffered the Chinese famine in childhood might affect an individual’s dietary habits and health status, and the joint effect between famine and harmful dietary pattern could have serious consequences on later-life health outcomes.
Minimally invasive surgery is a developing direction of modern medicine. With the successful development of controllable capsule endoscopies, capsule robots are very popular in the field of gastrointestinal medicine. At present, the study of intestinal robots is aimed at the pipeline environment of a single-phase liquid flow. But there exist food residues (i.e. solid particles) or liquid foods in the actual intestine, so intestinal fluid should be liquid–solid or liquid–liquid two-phase mixed fluid. For inner spiral capsule robots with different internal diameters and outer spiral capsule robots, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, the operational performance indicators (i.e. axial thrust force, circumferential resisting moment and maximum pressure to pipeline wall) of spiral capsule robots are numerically calculated in the liquid–solid or liquid–liquid two-phase mixed fluid. By the orthogonal experimental optimization method, the optimum design of spiral capsule robots is obtained in the liquid–solid mixed fluid. The experimental verification has been also carried out. The results show that in the liquid–solid two-phase fluid, the axial thrust force and circumferential resisting moment of the spiral capsule robots decrease with the increase of the size or concentration of solid particles. In the same liquid–solid or liquid–liquid mixed fluid, the operational performance indicators of outer spiral robots are much higher than those of inner spiral robots, and the operational performance indicators of inner spiral robots with bigger internal diameters are higher than those with smaller internal diameters. Adding solid particles of high concentration in the pipeline containing liquid will reduce the drive performance of spiral capsule robots, but adding another liquid of high viscosity will improve the drive performance of spiral capsule robots.
Cell's sub-cellular architecture and function can be revealed by Cryo soft X-ray tomography (Cryo-SXT) and Cryo-fluorescence microscopy (Cryo-FM) respectively. To understand the connection between cells' structure and function, correlative Cryo-SXT and Cryo-FM has been applied. Here we introduce a semiautomatic precise alignment and fusion technology of Cryo-SXT and Cryo-fluorescence microscopy.
'Missing wedge' problem exists in some kind of CT imaging situations, such as electron microscopy, x-ray nano-CT image, etc. Method such as iterative reconstruction algorithms, total variation based method were applied to improve the reconstruction quality, but the 'missing wedge' artifacts are still inevitable. In this paper, a method based on image processing technique was proposed to locate the 'missing wedge' artifacts in CT reconstruction. The result showed good performance on locating the artifacts, which also showed the potential in CT reconstruction and image analysis in nano-CT.
The soft X-ray Microscopy beamline BL07W at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is devoted to cryo nano-tomography for biological applications in the water window (284 - 530 eV) and for imaging of nanomaterials from 200 to 2500 eV. An ellipsoidal capillary used as condense to focus monochromatic light onto the sample. Two Ni zone plate (ZP) lenses made by Zeiss with 40 nm and 25 nm outer most zone widths, respectively, are available, giving spatial resolution in 2D of down to 40 nm and 30 nm, respectively. Hydrated biological specimens had been imaged in the water window photon energy range without chemical fixation, dehydration, chemical staining and physical sectioning. In addition, other applications such as nanomaterials imaging had been demonstrated.
A series of CoCrFeNiMox (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2) high-entropy alloys were designed to develop a eutectic high-entropy alloy system and to acquire a superfine eutectic structure. The results show that for the CoCrFeNiMox alloys, with the increase of Mo content from 0.2 to 1.2, the microstructures shift from a typical dendrite structure to a hypoeutectic microstructure (x = 0.6), and then to a fully eutectic microstructure (x = 0.8) with a lamellar spacing only 110 nm, and finally culminate in the hypereutectic structure (x = 1.0, x = 1.2). The XRD results show that CoCrFeNiMox alloys have a single FCC phase when x is 0.2 or 0.4. When Mo content is over 0.6, it begins to separate Cr9Mo21Ni20 intermetallic compounds. The hardness of the CoCrFeNiMox alloys is increasing significantly from 172.8 to 763.7 HV with the increase of Mo content. Meanwhile, the fracture strength increased but the ductility decreases. Among these alloys, the CoCrFeNiMo0.6 alloy shows excellent integrated mechanical properties of compressive fracture strength and strain, which are 2051 Mpa and 23%, respectively.
Here we show that monochromatic long-crested corrugations on an otherwise flat seafloor can coherently scatter the energy of an oblique incident internal wave to multiple multi-directional higher-mode internal waves via a series of resonant interactions. We demonstrate that a resonance between seabed corrugations and a normally or slightly oblique incident internal wave results in a series of follow-up resonant interactions, which take place between the same corrugations and successively resonated shorter waves. A chain resonance of internal waves that carries energy to small scales is thus obtained, and we find that the Richardson number decreases by several orders of magnitude over the corrugated patch. If the incidence angle is large, and the incident wave perfectly satisfies a resonance condition with the topography, it turns out that not many higher-mode resonance or near-resonance conditions can be satisfied, such that energy stays confined within the first few modes. Nevertheless, if the incident waves are sufficiently detuned from satisfying a perfect resonance condition with the seabed corrugations, then we show that this frequency detuning may balance off the large detuning due to oblique incidence, leading to a chain resonance that again carries energy to small scales. The evolution of the incident and resonated wave amplitudes is predicted from the envelope equation for internal waves over resonant seabed topography in a three-dimensional rotating fluid, which we derive considering the Boussinesq and
-plane approximations with
the Coriolis frequency, linear density stratification and small-amplitude corrugations. Our results suggest that topographic features on the ocean floor with a well-defined dominant wavenumber vector, through the chain resonance mechanism elucidated here, may play a more important role than previously thought in the enhancement of diapycnal mixing and energy dissipation.
The demand for accurate indoor positioning continues to grow but the predominant positioning technologies such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are not suitable for indoor environments due to multipath effects and Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) conditions. This paper presents a new indoor positioning system using artificial encoded magnetic fields, which has good properties for NLOS conditions and fewer multipath effects. The encoded magnetic fields are generated by multiple beacons; each beacon periodically generates unique magnetic field sequences, which consist of a gold code sequence and a beacon location sequence. The position of an object can be determined with measurements from a tri-axial magnetometer using a three-step method: performing time synchronisation between sensor and beacons, identifying the beacon field and the beacon location, and estimating the position of the object. The results of the simulation and experiment show that the proposed system is capable of achieving Two-Dimensional (2D) and Three-Dimensional (3D) accuracy at sub-decimetre and decimetre levels, respectively.
Many snow models have been developed for various applications such as hydrology, global atmospheric circulation models and avalanche forecasting. The degree of complexity of these models is highly variable, ranging from simple index methods to multi-layer models that simulate snow-cover stratigraphy and texture. In the framework of the Snow Model Intercomparison Project (SnowMIP), 23 models were compared using observed meteorological parameters from two mountainous alpine sites. The analysis here focuses on validation of snow energy-budget simulations. Albedo and snow surface temperature observations allow identification of the more realistic simulations and quantification of errors for two components of the energy budget: the net short- and longwave radiation. In particular, the different albedo parameterizations are evaluated for different snowpack states (in winter and spring). Analysis of results during the melting period allows an investigation of the different ways of partitioning the energy fluxes and reveals the complex feedbacks which occur when simulating the snow energy budget. Particular attention is paid to the impact of model complexity on the energy-budget components. The model complexity has a major role for the net longwave radiation calculation, whereas the albedo parameterization is the most significant factor explaining the accuracy of the net shortwave radiation simulation.
The focus of this paper is on analysis, comparison and research on the colorful low-temperature, lead-containing overglazes on glazed porcelain body and on the enamel glazes on the metal body of the Qing Dynasty by adopting several analytical methods. Analysis and tests on the element, boron in overglaze on glazed porcelain body and enamel glaze on metal body, were performed using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and the results showed that Cloisonné enamel, painted enamel and Falangcai samples contained boron, while Famille Rose (Fencai) samples did not contain boron. Meanwhile, such analysis methods as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXRF), Micro-Raman, stereomicroscope and Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to test and observe the element composition, crystal composition and microstructure of the samples. The results illustrated that matrix glaze of Cloisonné enamel, painted enamel and Falangcai was the same. The yellow glaze was a lead-alkali glass and other color glazes were boron-lead-alkali glass, while all color glazes of Famille Rose were lead-alkali glass. Colorful low-temperature overglaze on glazed porcelain body and enamel glaze on metal body had a common practice and technology in the use of opacifiers and colorants. Compared to painted enamel, the painting technique of Famille Rose was more complicated, and effect was apparently praised as being superior.
Here we show that there exist internal gravity waves that are inherently unstable, that is, they cannot exist in nature for a long time. The instability mechanism is a one-way (irreversible) harmonic-generation resonance that permanently transfers the energy of an internal wave to its higher harmonics. We show that, in fact, there are a countably infinite number of such unstable waves. For the harmonic-generation resonance to take place, the nonlinear terms in the free surface boundary condition play a pivotal role, and the instability does not occur in a linearly stratified fluid if a simplified boundary condition, such as a rigid lid or a linearized boundary condition, is employed. Harmonic-generation resonance presented here provides a mechanism for the transfer of internal wave energy to the higher-frequency part of the spectrum hence affecting, potentially significantly, the evolution of the internal waves spectrum.
Fixed-point iterative sweeping methods were developed in the literature to efficiently solve static Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This class of methods utilizes the Gauss-Seidel iterations and alternating sweeping strategy to achieve fast convergence rate. They take advantage of the properties of hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs) and try to cover a family of characteristics of the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation in a certain direction simultaneously in each sweeping order. Different from other fast sweeping methods, fixed-point iterative sweeping methods have the advantages such as that they have explicit forms and do not involve inverse operation of nonlinear local systems. In principle, it can be applied in solving very general equations using any monotone numerical fluxes and high order approximations easily. In this paper, based on the recently developed fifth order WENO schemes which improve the convergence of the classical WENO schemes by removing slight post-shock oscillations, we design fifth order fixed-point sweeping WENO methods for efficient computation of steady state solution of hyperbolic conservation laws. Especially, we show that although the methods do not have linear computational complexity, they converge to steady state solutions much faster than regular time-marching approach by stability improvement for high order schemes with a forward Euler time-marching.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7–28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.
Numerical investigations of body-wake interactions were carried out by simulating the flow over a rod–airfoil configuration using high-order implicit large eddy simulation (HILES) for the incoming velocity
and a Reynolds number based on the airfoil chord
. The flow over five different rod–airfoil configurations with different distances of
, 4, 6, 8 and 10, respectively, were calculated for the analysis of body-wake interaction phenomena. Various fundamental mechanisms dictating the intricate flow phenomena including force varying regulation, flow structures and flow patterns in the interaction region, turbulent fluctuations and their suppression, noise radiation and fluid resonant oscillation, have been studied systematically. Due to the airfoil downstream, a relatively higher base pressure is exerted on the surface of the cylinder upstream, and the pressure fluctuation on the surface of the rod–airfoil configuration with
is significantly suppressed, resulting in a reduction of the fluctuating lift. Following the distance between the cylinder and airfoil strongly decreases, Kármán-street shedding is suppressed due to the blocking effect. The flow in this interaction region has two opposite tendencies: the influence of the airfoil on the steady flow is to accelerate it and the counter-rotating vortices connecting with the leading edge of the airfoil tend to slow the flow down. There may be two flow patterns associated with the interference region, i.e. the Kármán-street suppressing mode and the Kármán-street shedding mode. The primary vortex shedding behind the cylinder upstream, and the shedding wake impingement onto the airfoil downstream, play a dominant role in the production of turbulent fluctuations. When primary vortex shedding is suppressed, the intensity of impingement is weakened, resulting in a significant suppression of the turbulent fluctuations. Due to these factors, a special broadband noise without a manifestly distinguishable peak is radiated by the rod–airfoil configuration with
. The fluid resonant oscillation within the flow interaction between the turbulent wake and the bodies was further investigated by adopting a feedback model, which confirmed that the effect of fluid resonant oscillation becomes stronger when
and 10. The results obtained in this study provide physical insight into the understanding of the mechanisms relevant to the body-wake interaction.
Considerable controversy exists regarding the associations of dietary patterns with the risk of all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate the potential associations between dietary patterns and the risk of all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality. The PubMed database was searched for prospective cohort studies on the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality published until February 2014. Random-effects models were used to calculate the summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) based on the highest v. the lowest category of dietary pattern scores. Stratified analyses were conducted based on sex, geographical region, follow-up duration, and adjustment/non-adjustment for energy intake. A total of thirteen prospective cohort studies involving 338 787 participants were included in the meta-analysis. There was evidence of inverse associations between the prudent/healthy dietary pattern and the risk of all-cause (SRRE = 0·76, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·86) and CVD (SRRE = 0·81, 95 % CI 0·75, 0·87) mortality and an absence of association between this dietary pattern and stroke mortality (SRRE = 0·89, 95 % CI 0·77, 1·02). However, no significant associations were observed between the Western/unhealthy dietary pattern and the risk of all-cause (SRRE = 1·07, 95 % CI 0·96, 1·20), CVD (SRRE = 0·99, 95 % CI 0·91, 1·08) and stroke (SRRE = 0·94, 95 % CI 0·81, 1·10) mortality. In conclusion, the findings provide evidence that greater adherence to a prudent/healthy dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality and not significantly associated with stroke mortality and that the Western/unhealthy dietary pattern is not associated with all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.
To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
Urban city in China.
The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies.
Median urinary ITC level was 1·61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs=0·1149; P<0·0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs=0·2591; P<0·0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
Biofilms are three-dimensional communities of bacteria distributed in a highly hydrated extracellular matrix (ECM). They can be visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but the requisite SEM sample preparation can modify the biofilm morphology. Here, four different approaches to prepare biofilms of hydrated Staphylococcus aureus for SEM imaging are compared. In order of increasing cooling effectiveness these are: (1) drying in air; (2) plunging in liquid nitrogen; (3) plunging in liquid ethane; and (4) high pressure freezing with liquid nitrogen. These different methods give rise to markedly different biofilm morphologies, which are revealed by cryo-SEM imaging. Significantly, high-pressure frozen biofilms exhibit a rich network of nanoscale ECM fibers surrounding individual bacteria throughout the biofilm thickness. This structure is entirely lost when similar biofilms are dried in air, and it is substantially modified when these biofilms are plunged into liquid nitrogen or liquid ethane.