High postprandial levels of TAG may further induce endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in subjects with high fasting levels of TAG, an effect that seems to be related to oxidative stress. The present study investigated whether minor compounds of olive oil with antioxidant activity decrease postprandial levels of soluble isoforms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), as surrogate markers of vascular inflammation, after a high-fat meal. A randomized crossover and blind trial on fourteen healthy and fourteen hypertriacylglycerolaemic subjects was performed. The study involved a 1-week adaptation lead-in period on a National Cholesterol Education Program Step I diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) containing 1125 mg polyphenols/kg and 350 mg tocopherols/kg, or refined olive oil (ROO) with no polyphenols or tocopherols. After a 12 h fast, the participants ate a high-fat meal enriched in EVOO or ROO (50 g/m2 body surface area), which on average provided 3700 kJ energy with a macronutrient profile of 72 % fat, 22 % carbohydrate and 6 % protein. Blood samples drawn hourly over the following 8 h demonstrated a similar postprandial TAG response for both EVOO and ROO meals. However, in both healthy and hypertriacylglycerolaemic subjects the net incremental area under the curve for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were significantly lower after the EVOO meal. In conclusion, the consumption of EVOO with a high content of minor antioxidant compounds may have postprandial anti-inflammatory protective effects.