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To gain more comprehensive understanding of metabolic syndrome (Mets) among in general Chinese population.
Cross-sectional study. Mets was defined by three widely accepted definitions including modified Adults Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and harmonized definition. Risk factors were evaluated by using multivariate logistic regression.
Nineteen rural villages in northeast China.
The survey was conducted in September 2017 and May 2018 on 10 926 individuals.
According to modified ATP III criteria, IDF criteria and harmonised definition, the overall prevalence of Mets was 41·3 % (95 % CI 40·3, 42·2), 34·2 % (95 % CI 33·2, 35·1) and 44·1 % (95 % CI 43·1, 45·1), respectively. Females had a higher prevalence, and elevated blood pressure was the most frequent. Age, female sex, non-peasant worker, higher BMI and lower-annual income were independent risk factors of Mets in all three definitions (all ps < 0·05). Based on modified ATP III criteria and harmonised definition, heavy drinking was positively correlated with Mets. In contrast, former drinking was inversely associated with Mets.
Mets is highly prevalent in rural areas of northeast China. Its independent risk factors include higher age, female sex, non-peasantry worker, higher BMI and lower-annual income. Modified ATP III criteria and harmonised definition may be superior definitions of Mets.
The present epidemiological study aimed to evaluate the association of serum electrolyte levels with hypertension in a population with a high-salt diet.
Secondary analysis of epidemiology data from the Northeast China Rural Cardiovascular Health Study conducted in 2012–2013. Blood pressure and hypertension status were analysed for association with serum sodium, potassium, chloride, total calcium, phosphate and magnesium levels using regression models.
High-salt diet, rural China.
Adult residents in Liaoning, China.
In total 10 555 participants were included, of whom 3287 had incident hypertension (IH) and 1655 had previously diagnosed hypertension (PDH). Fifty-six per cent of participants had electrolyte disturbance. Sixty-two per cent of hypercalcaemic participants had hypertension, followed by hypokalaemia (56 %) and hypernatraemia (54 %). Only hypercalcaemia showed significant associations with both IH (OR=1·70) and PDH (OR=2·25). Highest serum calcium quartile had higher odds of IH (OR=1·58) and PDH (OR=1·64) than the lowest quartile. Serum sodium had no significant correlation with hypertension. Serum potassium had a U-shaped trend with PDH. Highest chloride quartile had lower odds of PDH than the lowest chloride quartile (OR=0·65). Highest phosphate quartile was only associated with lower odds of IH (OR=0·75), and the higher magnesium group had significantly lower odds of IH (OR=0·86) and PDH (OR=0·77).
We have shown the association of serum calcium, magnesium and chloride levels with IH and/or PDH. In the clinical setting, patients with IH may have concurrent electrolyte disturbances, such as hypercalcaemia, that may indicate other underlying aetiologies.
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