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To provide scientific, theoretical support for the improvement of medical disaster training, we systematically analyzed the National Disaster Life Support (NDLS) Course and established a training curriculum with feedback based on the current status of disaster medicine in China.
The gray prediction model is applied to long-term forecast research on course effect. In line with the hypothesis, the NDLS course with feedback capability is more scientific and standardized.
The current training NDLS course system is suitable for Chinese medical disasters. After accepting the course training, audiences’ capabilities were enhanced. In the constructed GM (1,1) model prediction, the developing coefficients of the pretest and the posttest are 0.04 and 0.057, respectively. In light of the coefficient, the model is appropriate for the long-term prediction. The predicted results can be used as the basis for constructing training closed-loop optimization feedback. It can indicate that the course system has a good effect as well.
According to the constructed GM model, the NDLS course system is scientific, practical, and operational. The research results can provide reference for relevant departments and be used for the construction of similar training course systems.
Identifying the relative importance of urban and non-urban land-use types for potential denitrification derived N2O at a regional scale is critical for quantifying the impacts of human activities on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission under changing environments. In this study we used a regional dataset from China including 197 soil samples and six land-use types to evaluate the main predictors (land use, heavy metals, soil pH, soil moisture, substrate availability, functional and broad microbial abundances) of potential denitrification using multivariate and pathway analysis. Our results provide empirical evidence that soils on farms have the greatest potential denitrifying ability (PDA) (10.92±6.08ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1) followed by urban soil (6.80±5.35ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1). Our models indicate that land use (low vs. high human activity), followed by total nitrogen (TN) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) was the most important driver of PDA. In addition, our path analysis suggests that at least part of the impacts of land use on potential denitrification were mediated via microbial abundance, soil pH and substrates including TN, dissolved organic carbon and nitrate. This study identifies the main predictors of denitrification at a regional scale which is needed to quantify the impact of human activities on ecosystem functionality under changing conditions.
To revise an abbreviated version of the Silhouettes subtest of the Visual Object and Space Perception (VOSP) battery in order to recognize mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and determine the optimal cutoffs to differentiate among cognitively normal controls (NC), MCI, and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in the Chinese elderly.
A cross-sectional validation study.
Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China.
A total of 591 participants: Individuals with MCI (n = 211), AD (n = 139) and NC (n = 241) were recruited from the Memory Clinic, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China.
Baseline neuropsychological battery (including VOSP) scores were collected from firsthand data. An abbreviated version of silhouettes test (Silhouettes-A) was revised from the original English version more suitable for the elderly, including eight silhouettes of animals and seven silhouettes of inanimate objects, with a score ranging from 0 to 15.
Silhouettes-A was an effective test to screen MCI in the Chinese elderly with good sensitivity and specificity, similar to the Montreal cognitive assessment and superior to other single tests reflecting language, spatial, or executive function. However, it had no advantage in distinguishing MCI from AD. The corresponding optimal cutoff scores of Silhouettes-A were 10 for screening MCI and 8 for AD.
Silhouettes-A is a quick, simple, sensitive, and dependable cognitive test to distinguish among NC, MCI, and AD patients.
In this paper, we are going to study the strong limit theorem for the relative entropy density rates between two finite asymptotically circular Markov chains. Firstly, we prove some lammas on which the main result based. Then, we establish two strong limit theorem for non-homogeneous Markov chains. Finally, we obtain the main result of this paper. As corollaries, we get the strong limit theorem for the relative entropy density rates between two finite non-homogeneous Markov chains. We also prove that the relative entropy density rates between two finite non-homogeneous Markov chains are uniformly integrable under some conditions.
Chinese jiaotou is an economically important crop that is widely cultivated in East Asia. The lack of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has been a major obstacle for genetic studies of this crop. In the present study, SSR markers were developed for Chinese jiaotou on a large scale, based on the crop's transcriptome assembled de novo by a previous study. A search for SSR loci in the transcriptome's expressed sequence tags (ESTs) revealed 2157 SSRs, of which primer pairs could be developed for 1494. Among these resulting SSRs, trinucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant type, with GAA/TTC motifs occurring most frequently. Analysing the annotated function of SSR-containing ESTs revealed that they enriched into the GO categories involved in transcription regulation, oxidation–reduction, transport, etc. The quality and transferability of these markers were also assessed using 100 randomly selected EST–SSRs, and the result showed that these markers were of good quality and possessed high cross-species transferability. In addition, the developed SSR markers were used to analyse the genetic diversity of 19 cultivated and four wild accessions, resulting in three distinct groups, cluster I, II and III. Interestingly, all four wild accessions were assigned to cluster III, and two local varieties from northern Hunan, China, were closely related to the wild genotypes. These results provide new insights into the origin of Chinese jiaotou. The EST–SSRs developed herein represent the first large-scale development of SSR markers in Chinese jiaotou, and they can be widely used for genetic studies of the crop.
Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis prevalent in large parts of the world. This study was designed to determine the rates of Babesia microti infection among small rodents in Yunnan province, where human cases of babesiosis have been reported. Currently, distribution of Babesia in its endemic regions is largely unknown. In this study, we cataloged 1672 small wild rodents, comprising 4 orders, from nine areas in western Yunnan province between 2009 and 2011. Babesia microti DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 4·3% (72/1672) of the rodents analyzed. The most frequently infected rodent species included Apodemus chevrieri and Niviventer fulvescens. Rodents from forests and shrublands had significantly higher Babesia infection rates. Genetic comparisons revealed that Babesia was most similar to the Kobe- and Otsu-type strains identified in Japan. A variety of rodent species might be involved in the enzootic maintenance and transmission of B. microti, supporting the need for further serological investigations in humans.
Based on 15 diffusion couples located in face centered cubic single-phase region of ternary Ni–Al–Mo system, high-throughput determination of composition-dependent interdiffusivity matrices at 1273, 1373, and 1473 K was performed by using the recently developed numerical inverse method. The determined main interdiffusivities over the investigated composition and temperature ranges are all positive, and
is generally larger than
generally increases with concentration of Al, while
increases with concentrations of both Al and Mo. In contrast, the cross interdiffusivities can be either positive or negative. Average relative errors of
were evaluated to be 2.4, 5.1, 16.1, and 1.7% using error propagation. Furthermore, our prediction of composition profiles and interdiffusion fluxes based on evaluated interdiffusivity matrices agrees quite well with measured data. Traditional Matano–Kirkaldy method was also applied to further verify the reliability of obtained interdiffusivities. Besides, three-dimensional planes of activation energies of main interdiffusivities were also evaluated using the Arrhenius equation.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for menthyl lactate, C13H24O3, are reported [a = 5.522(6) Å, b = 11.795(8) Å, c = 17.780(6) Å, α = 50.632(3)°, β = 90.000(0)°, γ = 117.632(4)°, unit-cell volume V = 716.392(0) Å3, Z = 2, and space group P−1]. All measured lines were indexed and no detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for monomenthyl succinate, C14H24O4, are reported [a = 19.352(2), b = 30.015(1), c = 5.277(0) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 3065.1(6) Å3, Z = 8, and space group Pba2]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the Pba2 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
The abundance and community composition of phytoplankton are influenced by a suite of interacting environmental factors. Hong Kong's marine environment features a hydrographic gradient from an estuarine zone in the west to a transition zone in the middle and an oceanic zone in the east. Size fractionation combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment analyses were used to investigate the phytoplankton communities in different hydrographic zones during summer (July–August 2009) and winter (December 2009–January 2010). Clear temporal and spatial variations in environmental parameters occurred among hydrographic zones. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the major deviating factors among hydrographic zones were turbidity and salinity in summer and nitrate and phosphate in winter. Phytoplankton abundance showed significant temporal variations, but no zonal variations. Phytoplankton communities in all hydrographic zones were dominated by cells >5 µm in both summer and winter. Chlorophyll a concentrations for most size fractions correlated significantly with temperature. The high concentration of fucoxanthin indicated that the phytoplankton community was dominated by diatoms in both summer and winter, while dinoflagellates, cryptophytes, cyanobacteria and other minor groups occurred sporadically in low abundance. The spatial pattern of phytoplankton in Hong Kong's coastal seas did not reflect the hydrographic zonation, but the phytoplankton in the semi-enclosed Tolo Harbour and Deep Bay were different from those in the other zones.
This paper presents two uniformly convergent numerical schemes for the two dimensional steady state discrete ordinates transport equation in the diffusive regime, which is valid up to the boundary and interface layers. A five-point node-centered and a four-point cell-centered tailored finite point schemes (TFPS) are introduced. The schemes first approximate the scattering coefficients and sources by piecewise constant functions and then use special solutions to the constant coefficient equation as local basis functions to formulate a discrete linear system. Numerically, both methods can not only capture the diffusion limit, but also exhibit uniform convergence in the diffusive regime, even with boundary layers. Numerical results show that the five-point scheme has first-order accuracy and the four-point scheme has second-order accuracy, uniformly with respect to the mean free path. Therefore a relatively coarse grid can be used to capture the two dimensional boundary and interface layers.
Ni–base alloy coatings were fabricated on 45 steel by laser cladding using a CW-CO2 laser system. The microstructure of the coatings was analyzed using optical microscope (OM), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and x-ray diffractometer (XRD). The phase fractions, phase compositions, and solidification process in the coatings were calculated using Thermo-Calc software and compared with experimental results. The results show that a dense crack- and porous-free coating with good metallurgical bond is obtained under optimal process parameters. The coatings can be divided into three regions: clad zone (CZ), bonding zone, and heat-affected zone of the substrate. The CZ consists of γ-Ni, M7C3, CrB, and Ni3B phases. Based on the calculated results, the solidification process and reaction scheme in the coatings were discussed. The calculated results obtained from Thermo-Calc software agree with the experimental data well. It is beneficial to the coating design for a desirable microstructure and mechanical properties.
Little is known about the potential adherence to and the effectiveness of a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese adults with a habitually high carbohydrate intake. In the present controlled feeding trial, fifty overweight or obese women (age 47·9 (sem 0·9) years; BMI 26·7 (sem 0·3) kg/m2) were randomly assigned to a LC non-energy-restricted diet (initial carbohydrate intake 20 g/d, with a 10 g increase weekly) or an energy-restricted (ER) diet (carbohydrate intake 156–205 g/d, ER to 5021 or 6276 kJ/d, 35 % average energy reduction) for 12 weeks. Over the intervention period, the two diets had comparable compliance (96 %) and self-reported acceptability. At week 12, carbohydrate intake in the LC and ER groups contributed to 36·1 and 51·1 % of total energy, respectively (P< 0·001). Although both diets showed similarly decreased mean body weight (LC − 5·27 (95 % CI − 6·08, − 4·46) kg; ER − 5·09 (95 % CI − 5·50, − 4·67) kg, P= 0·67) and percentage of fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (LC − 1·19 (95 % CI − 1·88, − 0·50) %; ER − 1·56 (95 % CI − 2·20, − 0·92) %, P= 0·42), participants in the LC group had greater reductions in the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol (P= 0·03) and also in the ratio of TAG:HDL-cholesterol (P= 0·01) than those in the ER group. The present 12-week diet trial suggested that both a LC non-energy-restricted diet and an ER diet were acceptable to Chinese women and both diets were equally effective in reducing weight and fat mass. Moreover, the LC diet showed beneficial effects on blood lipid profiles.
A freestanding bulk nanoporous copper with ultralow density has been fabricated through dealloying of as-cast dual-phase Cu1Mn1Al8 alloy, and the dealloying behavior was investigated systematically. The experimental results show that due to different electrochemical activities, the Al11Cu5Mn3 phase of the dual-phase precursor alloy dissolved before AlCu2Mn, which corresponds to the dramatical evolutions of microstructure and composition. Additionally, a formation pattern based upon a mechanism combined “dissolution–redeposition” pattern, “phase-separation” pattern, and “coarsening” process has been built to describe the evolution process, which includes four stages, sequentially defined as “dissolution of Al11Cu5Mn3,” “redeposition of Cu atoms,” “dealloying of AlCu2Mn,” and “coarsening.”
Ultrashort electron bunch trains can be used for plasma wake field acceleration (PWFA) to overcome the limit of transformer ratio of a single electron bunch, or high-power terahertz (Thz) radiation production by various radiation mechanisms. Basic facility for high-power THz radiation development based on ultrashort electron beam has been set up at accelerator lab of TUB. Using birefringent crystal serials, ultraviolet (UV) pulse shaping for photocathode radio frequency gun to produce THz-repetition-rate pulse train was realized. Driven by such pulses, ultrashort electron bunch train with picosecond (ps) spacing was obtained for THz production. Measurement of the stacked UV pulse trains was done by difference frequency generation (DFG), and the measured group velocity mismatch of α-BBO crystal at 266.7-nm wavelength was 0.8 ps/mm. This method may also be applied to form ramped electron bunch trains for PWFA.
There is increasing evidence to show that 2-cell stage mouse blastomeres have differing developmental properties. Additionally, it has been suggested that such a difference might be due to their distribution of mRNA and/or protein asymmetry. However, to date, the exact genes that are involved in the orientation and order of blastomere division are not known. In this study, some differentially expressed transcripts were identified. Axin1, cell division cycle 25 homolog C (Cdc25c) and cyclin-dependent inhibitor 2D (Cdkn2d) were selected for validation by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on published data. Our real-time PCR results demonstrated that Axin1, Cdc25c and Cdkn2d genes had different levels of expression among blastomeres of the mouse 2-cell embryo i.e. the level of Axin1 mRNA was significantly higher in one blastomere when compared with the other blastomeres of the 2-cell embryo (p < 0.05). The variation in Cdc25c (p < 0.05) and Cdkn2d (p < 0.01) mRNA expression followed a similar trend to that of Axin1. In addition, the highest levels of expression of these three genes were detected in the same blastomere in the 2-cell embryo. We confirmed that there was an asymmetrical distribution pattern for Axin1, Cdc25c and Cdkn2d transcripts in 2-cell embryos. In conclusion, this study demonstrated clearly that there is embryonic asymmetry at the 2-cell stage and that these differentially expressed genes may result in differentiation in expression in embryo development.
AlGaN/GaN two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) heterostructures were grown by ammonia-MBE on sapphire and SiC substrates. Devices fabricated from these optimized HFET layers, with optically defined gates showed excellent characteristics, e.g. a maximum drain current density of 1.3 A/mm, maximum transconductance of 220 mS/mm, fT of 15.6 GHz and fMAX of 58.1 GHz was measured for devices with 0.9 μm gate length and 40 μm gate width. Shorter gate length devices exhibited higher frequency responses: fT of 68 GHz and fMAX of 125 GHz for 0.25 μm gate length and fT of 103 GHz and fMAX of 170 GHz for 0.15 μm gate length. However, these devices showed “current collapse” when subjected to load pull measurements. Current collapse was also observed in sequentially repeated DC measurements in the dark, both on sapphire and SiC substrates, although the degree of collapse varied greatly from one wafer to another. One method of reducing the current collapse was to apply a thin (100 - 6000 Å) magnetron sputtered AlN passivation layer (over the gates) or a 500 Å layer under the gates so that MISFET devices were obtained. The electrical characteristics of the passivated and unpassivated devices are discussed.
Recent experiments show that nanosized olivine LiFePO4 has different phase transition and solubility behavior than that of larger cathode particles. The possibility of metastable or globally stable amorphous phase in nanosized LiFePO4 particles during delithiation is considered in a diffuse-interface model. At a small enough particle size, a lithiated crystalline phase can undergo amorphization upon charging instead of transforming directly to the delithiated crystalline phase at nanoscale particle sizes.