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The concurrent incidence of autoimmune comorbidities in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is known. However, the association between OCD and related autoimmune skin diseases (ASDs) has not been well studied.
This study aimed to investigate the association between OCD and the risk of ASDs.
To assess the risk of developing ASDs, we recruited 44 324 patients with OCD and 177 296 matched controls from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A Cox regression model was used for the analyses.
After adjusting for confounders, an increased risk of ASDs among the patients with OCD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 6.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.43-7.45) was found when compared to the controls. Statistically significant associations were found between OCD and seven individual ASDs, including psoriasis (aHR: 12.52; 95% CI: 8.78-17.85), lichen planus (aHR: 27.22; 95% CI: 13.09-56.60), alopecia areata (aHR: 13.69; 95% CI: 9.38-19.98), autoimmune bullous diseases (aHR: 4.30; 95% CI: 2.03-9.11), hidradenitis suppurativa (aHR: 29.95; 95% CI: 3.35-267.62), vitiligo (aHR: 9.35; 95% CI: 5.35-16.32), and lupus erythematosus (aHR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.52-2.91).
Patients with OCD had an increased risk of developing ASDs compared to matched controls. Further studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms.
China’s small-scale agricultural producers face many challenges to increasing productivity and efficiency. In recent years, the Chinese government has provided support for farmer professional cooperatives (FPCs) to connect small farms with upstream and downstream processes in the food supply chain. This study combines propensity score matching and sample selection-corrected stochastic production frontier analysis to estimate the impacts of FPC participation by greenhouse vegetable producers on technical efficiency and income. Results indicate that FPCs help participants improve returns to scale and marginal returns to land and labor, increase technical efficiency, and obtain ¥4,460 (18%) greater income per greenhouse than nonparticipants.
This research paper addresses the hypothesis that RagD is a key signalling factor that regulates amino acid (AA) mediated-casein synthesis and cell proliferation in cow mammary epithelial cells (CMECs). The expression of RagD was analysed at different times during pregnancy and lactation in bovine mammary tissue from dairy cows. We showed that expression of RagD at lactation period was higher (P < 0·05) than that at pregnancy period. When CMECs were treated with methionine (Met) or lysine (Lys), expression of RagD, β-casein (CSN2), mTOR and p-mTOR, and cell proliferation were increased. Further, when CMECs were treated to overexpress RagD, expression of CSN2, mTOR and p-mTOR, and cell proliferation were up-regulated. Furthermore, the increase in expression of CSN2, mTOR and p-mTOR, and cell proliferation in response to Met or Lys supply was inhibited by inhibiting RagD, and those effects were reversed in the overexpression model. When CMECs were treated with RagD overexpression together with mTOR inhibition or conversely with RagD inhibition together with mTOR overexpression, results showed that the increase in expression of CSN2 and cell proliferation in response to RagD overexpression was prevented by inhibiting mTOR, and those effects were reversed by overexpressing mTOR. The interaction of RagD with subunit proteins of mTORC1 was analysed, and the result showed that RagD interacted with Raptor. CMECs were treated with Raptor inhibition, and the result showed that the increase in expression of mTOR and p-mTOR in response to RagD overexpression was inhibited by inhibiting Raptor.
In conclusion, our study showed that RagD is an important activation factor of mTORC1 in CMECs, activating AA-mediated casein synthesis and cell proliferation, potentially acting via Raptor.
Previous evidence has shown positive associations between post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD) and hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes
mellitus, which are all risk factors for stroke, but the role of PTSD in
the subsequent development of stroke is still unknown.
To investigate the temporal association between PTSD and the development
Identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database,
5217 individuals aged 18 years, with PTSD but with no history of stroke,
and 20 868 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled between 2002
and 2009, and followed up until the end of 2011 to identify the
development of stroke.
Individuals with PTSD had an increased risk of developing any stroke
(hazard ratio (HR) 3.37, 95% CI 2.44–4.67) and ischaemic stroke (HR =
3.47, 95% CI 2.23–5.39) after adjusting for demographic data and medical
comorbidities. Sensitivity tests showed consistent findings (any stroke
HR = 3.02, 95% CI 2.13–4.28; ischaemic stroke HR = 2.89, 95% CI
1.79–4.66) after excluding the first year of observation.
Individuals with PTSD have an increased risk of developing any stroke and
ischaemic stroke. Further studies are required to investigate the
Potassium (K) is an essential nutrient and abundant cation in plant cells. The application of K+ could alleviate abiotic stress. However, it was reported that the alleviation of K+ on salt-stressed plants only happened when K+ concentration was low. Most studies were focused on effects of sodium salts on plants in salty soils, and little information was reported about potassium salts, especially a higher level of potassium in alkaline salts. To explore the effects of K+ in alkaline salts on plant growth, and whether it had a same destructive impact as Na+, we mixed two alkaline sodium salts (ASS) (NaHCO3:Na2CO3 = 9:1) and two alkaline potassium salts (APS) (KHCO3:K2CO3 = 9:1) to treat 10-day-old wheat seedlings. Effects of ASS and APS on growth, photosynthesis, ions absorption and solutes accumulation were compared. Results indicated that effects of potassium salts in soil on plants growth were related to K+ concentration. Both growth and photosynthesis of wheat seedlings decreased, and the reduction was higher in APS treatment than in ASS treatment at 40 mM alkalinity. ASS treatment absorbed Na+, competing with K+ and free Ca2+, and inhibited the absorption of inorganic anions. APS treatments accumulated K+ and reduced the absorption of anions, with no competition with other cations. Both APS and ASS treatments promoted free Mg2+ accumulation and inhibited H2PO4−uptake. The reduction of H2PO4− promoted organic acid synthesis indirectly. Soluble sugar and proline accumulation were also related to the alkaline condition and extra K+ addition. In conclusion, excess potassium ions in soil, especially in alkaline soils, were harmful to plants. APS was another severe salt stress, intensity of which was higher than ASS. The growth and physiological response mechanisms of wheat seedlings to APS were similar to ASS. Both inorganic ions and organic solutes took part in the osmotic adjustment. Differences for APS depended on K+, but ASS on Na+.
The quality of interface between ultrathin silicon dioxide films and their silicon (Si) wafers was characterized using room-temperature photoluminescence (RTPL) and Raman spectroscopy. Three types of low-temperature (350 °C or room temperature) oxide films on Si grown by different techniques were measured and compared with Si wafers having native oxide and high-temperature thermally grown oxide films. Significant RTPL spectra and intensity variations were measured among low-temperature oxide films. Very strong excitation wave length dependence of RTPL spectra and intensity was observed from the low-temperature oxide films on Si whereas the RTPL spectra and intensity from Si with native oxide and thermally grown oxide films were consistent. Stress in the Si lattice, with different low-temperature oxide layers, showed noticeable differences depending on the oxidation technique used. Key device performance parameters of image sensor devices fabricated using three different low-temperature oxide films showed good correlation with the RTPL and Raman measurement results. The RTPL spectra and Raman shifts are very sensitive to the quality of the oxide/Si interface and can be used as an interface quality monitoring technique.
Owing to energy conservation of waste heat, Lead telluride, PbTe, based materials have promising good thermoelectric properties around a range of middle temperature (Fig. 1, from 300 to 600°C), due to their high melting point, fine chemical stability, and the high figure of merit Z. The general physical properties and factors affecting the figure of merit have been reviewed. This research is focused on the n-type of PbTe materials and collocated with analysis of densities, hardness, elastic modulus, and thermoelectric properties thermoelectric figure of merit ZT=GS2T/κ (where G is electrical conductivity, S is Seebeck coefficient , T is absolute temperature, and κ is thermal conductivity). Room temperature hardness and Young’s modulus are measured by nano-indentation. In this study, the hot-press compacts under the pressure of 4 ton/cm2 can reach the maximum density about 8.2 g/cm3, and hardness and elastic modulus are 0.6 GPa and 70 GPa, respectively. The figure of merit value (ZT) of PbTe in low temperature (around 340°C) was found about 1 with carrier concentration above 1019 cm−3. These results also indicate that the powder metallurgy parameters provide potentialities for further increase of the high efficiency of energy conversion in PbTe materials.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of osteopontin neutralization treatment on schistosome-induced liver injury in BALB/C mice. We randomly divided 100 BALB/C mice into groups A, B, C, D and group E. Mice in all groups except group A were abdominally infected with schistosomal cercariae to induce a schistosomal hepatopathological model. Mice in group C, D and group E were respectively administered with praziquantel, praziquantel plus colchicine and praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody. We extracted mouse liver tissues at 3 and 9 weeks after the ‘stool-eggs-positive’ day, observed liver histopathological changes by haematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome staining and detected the expression of osteopontin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot. We found that praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody treatment significantly decreased the granuloma dimension, the percentage of collagen and the expression of osteopontin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 compared to praziquantel plus colchicine treatment in both the acute and chronic stage of schistosomal liver damage (P<0·05). So we believe that the combined regimen of osteopontin immunoneutralization and anti-helminthic treatment can reduce the granulomatous response and liver fibrosis during the schistosomal hepatopathologic course.
A late porogen removal scheme was used to make low-k materials (k = 2.72 to 2.02) using methylsilsesquioxane (MSQ) and a high-temperature porogen, poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP), to circumvent the reliability issues related to as-deposited porous dielectric. Based on the nanoindentation and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, the moduli of the hybrid films were found to be higher than their porous forms, and even better than the dense MSQ film, for porogen loading below a critical level (˜69.5 vol%). This could be attributed to their enhanced degree of cross-linking in MSQ as evidenced by the network/cage structural ratios. Besides, high-temperature porogen plays different roles during the cross-linking of MSQ depending on its loadings. In this study, with immediate loading at 16.7 vol%, PS-b-P4VP can serve as plasticizer to enhance the degree of cross-linking, but at a large loading >16.7 vol%, it becomes a steric hindrance reducing the degree of cross-linking.
The development of near-isogenic lines (NILs) is an important fundamental step in the cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular marker assisted breeding. In the present study, NILs for two major QTLs of basal root thickness (BRT) and 1000-grain-weight (TGW) were obtained by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) through foreground selection for target QTL and background selection in three backcross generations (BC1F1, BC2F1 and BC3F1). After phenotypic evaluation in the BC3F2 generation, nine BRT QTL-NILs with BRT ranges of 1.07–1.16 mm (6.11–15.18% greater than the recurrent parent) and an average recovery ratio of genetic background (RRGB) of 97.22%, and 11 TGW QTL-NILs with ranges of 21.25–26.25 g (7.05–32.16% greater than the recurrent parent) and 95.97% of RRGB, were selected.
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