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Identifying risk factors and mortality of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) could have important implications for the clinical management of AD.
This pilot study aimed to examine the overall mortality of AD patients over a 10-year surveillance period in Shanghai, China. This study is an extension of our previous investigation on mortality of neurodegenerative diseases.
One hundred and thirty-two AD patients recruited from the memory clinics of two hospitals in Shanghai in 2007 were followed up until December 31, 2017 or death, representing a follow-up period of up to 10 years. Overall standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated, and predictors for survival at recruitment were estimated.
Sixty-seven patients had died by December 31, 2017, and the SMR at 10 years of follow-up was 1.225 (95% confidence interval 0.944–1.563). Employing Cox’s proportional hazard modeling, lower Mini-Mental State Examination score, and comorbid diabetes predicted poor survival in this cohort.
This pilot study suggests a similar survival trend of patients with AD compared to the general population in Shanghai urban region. Poor cognitive status and comorbid diabetes had a negative impact on the survival of AD patients.
BiCuTeO is a potential thermoelectric material owing to its low thermal conductivity and high carrier concentration. However, the thermoelectric performance of BiCuTeO is still below average and has much scope for improvement. In this study, we manipulated the nominal oxygen content in BiCuTeO and synthesized BiCuTeOx (x = 0.94–1.06) bulks by a solid-state reaction and pelletized them by a cold-press method. The power factor was enhanced by varying the nominal oxygen deficiency due to the increased Seebeck coefficient. The thermal conductivity was also reduced due to the decrease in lattice thermal conductivity owing to the small grain size generated by the optimal nominal oxygen content. Consequently, the ZT value was enhanced by ∼11% at 523 K for stoichiometric BiCuTeO0.94 compared to BiCuTeO. Thus, optimal oxygen manipulation in BiCuTeO can enhance the thermoelectric performance. This study can be applied to developing oxides with high thermoelectric performances.
To revise an abbreviated version of the Silhouettes subtest of the Visual Object and Space Perception (VOSP) battery in order to recognize mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and determine the optimal cutoffs to differentiate among cognitively normal controls (NC), MCI, and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in the Chinese elderly.
A cross-sectional validation study.
Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China.
A total of 591 participants: Individuals with MCI (n = 211), AD (n = 139) and NC (n = 241) were recruited from the Memory Clinic, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China.
Baseline neuropsychological battery (including VOSP) scores were collected from firsthand data. An abbreviated version of silhouettes test (Silhouettes-A) was revised from the original English version more suitable for the elderly, including eight silhouettes of animals and seven silhouettes of inanimate objects, with a score ranging from 0 to 15.
Silhouettes-A was an effective test to screen MCI in the Chinese elderly with good sensitivity and specificity, similar to the Montreal cognitive assessment and superior to other single tests reflecting language, spatial, or executive function. However, it had no advantage in distinguishing MCI from AD. The corresponding optimal cutoff scores of Silhouettes-A were 10 for screening MCI and 8 for AD.
Silhouettes-A is a quick, simple, sensitive, and dependable cognitive test to distinguish among NC, MCI, and AD patients.
There is little investigation on the interaction effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and social support on non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in community adolescent populations, or gender differences in these effects.
To examine the individual and interaction effects of ACEs and social support on NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in adolescents, and explore gender differences.
A school-based health survey was conducted in three provinces in China between 2013–2014. A total of 14 820 students aged 10–20 years completed standard questionnaires, to record details of ACEs, social support, NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt.
Of included participants, 89.4% reported one or more category of ACEs. The 12-month prevalence of NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 26.1%, 17.5% and 4.4%, respectively; all were significantly associated with increased ACEs and lower social support. The multiple adjusted odds ratio of NSSI in low versus high social support was 2.27 (95% CI 1.85–2.67) for girls and 1.81 (95% CI 1.53–2.14) for boys, and their ratio (Ratio of two odds ratios, ROR) was 1.25 (P = 0.037). Girls with high ACEs scores (5–6) and moderate or low social support also had a higher risk of suicide attempt than boys (RORs: 2.34, 1.84 and 2.02, respectively; all P < 0.05).
ACEs and low social support are associated with increased risk of NSSI and suicidality in Chinese adolescents. Strategies to improve social support, particularly among female adolescents with a high number of ACEs, should be an integral component of targeted mental health interventions.
Paradoxical arguments and mixed empirical evidence coexist in the current literature concerning the relationship between team familiarity and team innovation. To resolve this contradiction, we apply habitual routines theory to propose that team familiarity and team innovation have an inverted U-shaped relationship. Using a data set of 68,933 R&D teams in the electrical engineering industry, our results support a nonlinear relationship between team familiarity and team innovation, and suggest that the best innovative performance is produced by moderately familiar teams. Furthermore, we find that external learning can moderate this curvilinear relationship. Theoretical contributions and future implications are discussed.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
A series of self-assembled WO3–BiVO4 nanostructured thin films with 17, 25, 50, 67, and 100 mol% WO3 were grown on the (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. The microstructures including crystalline phases, epitaxial relationship, interface structures, and chemical composition distributions were investigated by a combination of various electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The monoclinic BiVO4 formed the matrix, in which WO3 nanopillars were embedded with specific epitaxial relationships. In BiVO4-rich sample, orthorhombic Bi2WO6 was formed. However, metastable hexagonal WO3 phase and orthorhombic WO3 phase coexisted in other composite samples. The thin amorphous layer at the film/substrate interface indicated that the mismatch strain between films and substrate is released. The hydrostatic tensile strain due to thermal expansion mismatch between BiVO4 and WO3 as well as the diffusion of Bi into the WO3 stabilized the metastable h-WO3. A WO3–BiVO4 pseudobinary phase diagram was proposed based on the magnitude of the thermal expansion mismatch and the distance of Bi diffusion, which can be applied to design the microstructures of WO3–BiVO4 heterojunctions and optimize their photoelectrochemical properties.
We report on a target system supporting automated positioning of nano-targets with a precision resolution of
in three dimensions. It relies on a confocal distance sensor and a microscope. The system has been commissioned to position nanometer targets with 1 Hz repetition rate. Integrating our prototype into the table-top ATLAS 300 TW-laser system at the Laboratory for Extreme Photonics in Garching, we demonstrate the operation of a 0.5 Hz laser-driven proton source with a shot-to-shot variation of the maximum energy about 27% for a level of confidence of 0.95. The reason of laser shooting experiments operated at 0.5 Hz rather than 1 Hz is because the synchronization between the nano-foil target positioning system and the laser trigger needs to improve.
Mesocrystal—a new class of crystals compared with conventional single crystals and randomly distributed nanocrystal systems—has captured significant attention in recent decades. Current studies have been focused on the advanced synthesis as well as the intriguing properties of mesocrystal. In order to create new opportunities upon functional mesocrystals, they can be regarded as a new functional entirety when integrated with unique matrix environments. The elegant combination of mesocrystals and matrices has enabled researchers to realize enthralling tunabilities and to derive new functionalities that cannot be found in individual components. Therefore, mesocrystal-embedded system forms a new playground towards multifunctionalities. This review article delivers a general roadmap that portrays the enhancement of intrinsic properties and new functionalities driven by novel mesocrystal-embedded oxide systems. An in-depth understanding and breakthroughs achieved in mesocrystal-embedded oxide systems are highlighted. This article concludes with a brief discussion on potential directions and perspectives along this research field.
The new Vancouver Chest Pain (VCP) Rule recommends early discharge for chest pain patients who are at low risk of developing acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and thus can be discharged within 2 hours of arrival at the emergency department (ED). This study aimed to assess the performance of the new VCP Rule for Asian patients presenting with chest pain at the ED.
This prospective cohort study involved patients attended to at the ED of a large urban centre. Patients of at least 25 years old, presenting with stable chest pain and a non-diagnostic ECG, and with no history of active coronary artery disease were included in the study. The main outcome measures were cardiac events, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass within 30 days of enrolment.
The study included 1690 patients from 27 August 2000 to 1 May 2002, with 661 patients fulfilling the VCP criteria. Of those for early discharge, 24 had cardiac events and 13 had angioplasty or bypass at 30 days, compared to 91 and 41, respectively, for those unsuitable for discharge. This gave the rule a sensitivity of 78.1% for cardiac events, including angioplasty and bypass. Specificity was 41.0%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 94.4%.
We found the new VCP Rule to have moderate sensitivity and poor specificity for adverse cardiac events in our population. With an NPV of less than 100%, this means that a small proportion of patients sent home with early discharge would still have adverse cardiac events.
This study develops a Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB) regression model to evaluate the factors influencing the loss of human life in shipping accidents using ten years' ship accident data in the South China Sea. The ZINB regression model results show that the expected loss of human life is higher for collision, fire/explosion, contact, grounding, hull damage, machinery damage/failure and capsizing accidents occurring in adverse weather conditions during night periods. Sinking can cause the highest loss of life compared to all other accident types. There are fewer fatalities and missing people when the ship involved in an accident is moored or docked. The results also reveal that the loss of human life is associated with shipping accidents occurring far away from the coastal area/harbour/ports. The results of this study are beneficial for policy-makers in proposing efficient strategies to reduce shipping accident casualties in the South China Sea.
In this paper we report a large-scale developmental study of early productive vocabulary acquisition by 928 Chinese-speaking children aged between 1;0 and 2;6, using the Early Vocabulary Inventory for Mandarin Chinese (Hao, Shu, Xing & Li, 2008). The results show that: (i) social words, especially words for people, are the predominant type of words in Chinese-speaking children's earliest productive vocabulary; (ii) overall, Chinese-speaking children's vocabulary contains greater proportions of nouns than other word categories, especially at the earliest vocabulary stage; and (iii) verbs tend to appear earlier for Chinese-speaking children as compared with English-speaking children at the same levels of vocabulary development. In addition, our study has identified the underlying variables that influence the age of acquisition of words, specifically, the interplay between the conceptual (imageability) and linguistic properties (word frequency, word length, and grammatical category) that jointly shape the development of Mandarin-speaking children's early vocabulary.
Self-assembled vertical heteroepitaxial nanostructures (VHN) in the complex oxide field have fascinated scientists for decades because they provide degrees of freedom to explore in condensed matter physics and design-coupled multifunctionlities. Recently, of particular interest is the perovskite-spinel-based VHN, covering a wide spectrum of promising applications. In this review, fabrication of VHN, their growth mechanism, control, and resulting novel multifunctionalities are discussed thoroughly, providing researchers a comprehensive blueprint to construct promising VHN. Following the fabrication section, the state-of-the-art design concepts for multifunctionalities are proposed and reviewed by suitable examples. By summarizing the outlook of this field, we are excitedly expecting this field to rise with significant contributions ranging from scientific value to practical applications in the foreseeable future.
We present the study of the synthesis of (001) nickel oxide (NiO) epitaxial nanocrystals grown on (001) strontium titanate (SrTiO3) single crystal substrates. Pulsed laser deposition of the bismuth nickel oxide (BiNiO3, BNO) perovskite precursor followed by post-deposition processing is carried out to form the NiO nanocrystals. A detailed analysis of the dimensions of nanocrystals reveals that the morphology attained differs from the thermodynamically expected equilibrium shape. The deviations from the equilibrium shape are found to follow a systematic trend where the in-plane basal dimensions, that is, the length and width of the nanocrystals grown differ in discretized dimensions. This discretization suggests that for a given interfacial area of nanocrystals there are multiple stable basal rectangular geometries attainable.
This work presents the preparation and characterization of N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals obtained by a solid-state reaction in vacuum with urea as the nitrogen source. The particle sizes of the products are smaller than 20 nm from the x-ray powder diffraction patterns and the transmission electron microscopy images. Different from the reported samples obtained in air or under dry N2 or NH3 gas flow, the doped nitrogen exists mainly as absorbed NOx groups but as smaller incorporated species in the nanocrystals, which is supported by the results from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Dependent on the nitrogen amount, the surface photovoltage (SPV) response reaches the maximum at the mediate molar ratio of 5:4 (urea to TiO2), which can be explained that proper nitrogen concentration can enhance the separation of the photogenerated carriers to improve the SPV intensity, but excess nitrogen can spread the impurity energy levels to narrow energy gaps, which reinforces the combination of the photogenerated electrons and holes and then decreases the SPV signal. The corresponding detailed discussion is also reported.
Two-micrometer-thick Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.98Ti0.02)O3 (PLZT) antiferroelectric films, with the addition of different PbO insert layer, were successfully fabricated on LaNiO3/Si substrates through a sol–gel method, and their microstructure and the energy storage performance were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction curves and scanning electron microscopy images indicated that all the PLZT films showed a strong (042)-preferred orientation and had a uniform surface microstructure. The electrical measurements illustrated that the capacitive density and saturation polarization values of the thick films were improved by the PbO insert layer. As a result, PLZT thick films with 0.4‐M/L PbO‐insert layer possessed an enhanced energy storage density and energy storage efficiency, which were 25.2 J/cm3 and 52.3% measured at 984 kV/cm, respectively. Moreover, after 106 switching, the Jreco values of the corresponding films were only declined from 17.5 to 16.1 J/cm3, indicating good fatigue endurance.
To determine the association between major dietary patterns characterized by factor analysis and risk of depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents.
Diet and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in a cross-sectional survey among students attending junior high school. Dietary patterns were derived from a self-reported FFQ, which consisted of thirty-eight items. Anthropometric measurements were also performed.
Four junior high schools in Bengbu city, China.
A random sample of 5003 adolescents, 11–16 years of age (mean 13·21 years).
Three major dietary patterns were identified in the study based on factor analysis: ‘snack’, ‘animal food’ and ‘traditional’. The prevalence of depression symptoms, anxiety disorders and the coexistence of both were 11·2 % (560/5003), 14·6 % (732/5003) and 12·6 % (629/5003), respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, adolescents in the highest tertile of snack dietary pattern scores had a higher odds for ‘pure’ psychological symptoms (‘depression without anxiety’, OR = 1·64; 95 % CI 1·30, 2·06; and ‘anxiety without depression’, OR = 1·87; 95 % CI 1·51, 2·31) compared with coexisting depression and anxiety (OR = 1·93; 95 % CI 1·54, 2·43). Similar to snacks, high consumption of animal foods was associated with a higher risk of psychological symptoms. Compared with low consumption, adolescents in the highest tertile of traditional dietary pattern scores had lower odds for ‘pure’ depression (OR = 0·38; 95 % CI 0·30, 0·49), ‘pure’ anxiety (OR = 0·85; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·04) and coexisting anxiety and depression (OR = 0·50; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·63).
Data from Chinese secondary-school adolescents validated findings from adult populations. Dietary patterns should be considered as important predictors of depression and anxiety among adolescents in further studies.