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Based on recent studies on sea ice and newly developed technologies, this paper examines the requirements and environmental factors for exploitation of sea ice as a freshwater resource. Considering the ‘mining’ of sea ice, the suitability of locations in the Bohai Sea, China, for exploitation was analysed and evaluated using GIS technology. The ice must be >10 cm thick, the intertidal zone must be narrow and the ‘mining’ area must have a water depth of at least 2 m. The sea areas with feasible resources are located mainly in the nearshore area of northern Liaodong Bay and in a narrow and long area along the coast of Bohai Bay. Most coastal areas of northern Liaodong Bay have favourable conditions, while Bohai Bay is widely constrained by unsuitable conditions. According to the status of the resources and the coastal environment conditions, the eastern and western coasts of northern Liaodong Bay are the most suitable areas for exploitation at the current technological level.
We report on the radiative transfer process and optical properties of sea ice in the thermal infrared (TIR) band, presenting two new linear kernel driver models (Relative Emissivity Distribution Function, REDF) that describe TIR emission characteristics of smooth and rough ice. In order to test the models and determine the necessary coefficients, in situ measurements from the Bohai Sea were carried out during the 2011/12 and 2012/13 boreal winters. The results show that the relative emissivity of smooth sea ice decreases along with increasing viewing zenith angle, and the shape of the relative emissivity curve is similar to that of an ideal plane. Affected by parameters such as roughness and surface temperature distribution, the anisotropy of relative emissivity of sea ice with a high degree of roughness is stronger relative to the cosine emitter. The model coefficients were also obtained using a robust regression method based on the measured data. The presented models are more practical than the numerical radiative transfer model and can be used for multi-angular TIR remote sensing.
The objective of this study was to explore the expression of urotensin II (UII), its receptor (GPR14), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as well as their associations in the ischaemic brains of rats with focal cerebral ischaemia, under normal and diabetic conditions.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ) into Sprague—Dawley rats. Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) four weeks after DM onset by STZ. Rats (n=80) were divided into four groups: normal control, DM, MCAO, and DM/MCAO. Immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of UII, GPR14 and VEGF in the diabetic and ischaemic brain.
Expression of UII and GPR14 was increased at mRNA and protein levels in the DM and MCAO group compared with controls. In the DM/MCAO group, expression of UII and GPR14 was increased significantly in the ischaemic brain, and was accompanied by a significantly increased VEGF expression.
Diabetes mellitus was seen to aggravate brain lesions after ischaemia, and UII may have an important role.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of osteopontin neutralization treatment on schistosome-induced liver injury in BALB/C mice. We randomly divided 100 BALB/C mice into groups A, B, C, D and group E. Mice in all groups except group A were abdominally infected with schistosomal cercariae to induce a schistosomal hepatopathological model. Mice in group C, D and group E were respectively administered with praziquantel, praziquantel plus colchicine and praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody. We extracted mouse liver tissues at 3 and 9 weeks after the ‘stool-eggs-positive’ day, observed liver histopathological changes by haematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome staining and detected the expression of osteopontin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot. We found that praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody treatment significantly decreased the granuloma dimension, the percentage of collagen and the expression of osteopontin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 compared to praziquantel plus colchicine treatment in both the acute and chronic stage of schistosomal liver damage (P<0·05). So we believe that the combined regimen of osteopontin immunoneutralization and anti-helminthic treatment can reduce the granulomatous response and liver fibrosis during the schistosomal hepatopathologic course.
Cytosol Ca2+ overload plays a vital role in ischemic neuronal damage, which is largely contributed by the Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors. In this article, L-VGCCs were activated by depolarization to investigate the cross-talk between NMDA receptors and L-VGCCs.
Depolarization was induced by 20 minutes incubation of 75 mM KCl in cultured rat cortical neuron. Apoptosis-like neuronal death was detected by DAPI staining. Tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit 2A (NR2A), interactions of Src and NR2A were detected by immunoblot and immunoprecipitation.
Depolarization induced cortical neuron apoptosis-like cell death after 24 hours of restoration. The apoptosis was partially inhibited by 5 mM EGTA, 100 μM Cd2+, 10 μM nimodipine, 100 μM genistein, 20 μM MK-801, 2 μM PP2 and combined treatment of nimodipine and MK-801. NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation increased after depolarization, and the increase was inhibited by the drugs listed above. Moreover, non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src bound with NR2A after depolarization and restoration. The binding was also inhibited by the drugs listed above.
The results indicated that depolarization-induced neuronal death might be due to extracellular Ca2+ influx through L-VGCCs and subsequently Src activationmediated NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation.
Variational image segmentation based on the Mumford and Shah model , together with implementation by the piecewise constant level-set method (PCLSM) , leads to fully nonlinear Total Variation (TV)-Allen-Cahn equations. The commonly-used numerical approaches usually suffer from the difficulties not only with the non-differentiability of the TV-term, but also with directly evolving the discontinuous piecewise constant-structured solutions. In this paper, we propose efficient dual algorithms to overcome these drawbacks. The use of a splitting-penalty method results in TV-Allen-Cahn type models associated with different “double-well” potentials, which allow for the implementation of the dual algorithm of Chambolle . Moreover, we present a new dual algorithm based on an edge-featured penalty of the dual variable, which only requires to solve a vectorial Allen-Cahn type equation with linear ∇(div)-diffusion rather than fully nonlinear diffusion in the Chambolle’s approach. Consequently, more efficient numerical algorithms such as time-splitting method and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) can be implemented. Various numerical tests show that two dual algorithms are much faster and more stable than the primal gradient descent approach, and the new dual algorithm is at least as efficient as the Chambolle’s algorithm but is more accurate. We demonstrate that the new method also provides a viable alternative for image restoration.
The improved effects of dietary chickpeas on visceral adiposity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance were examined. Rats were fed a normal-fat diet (NFD), a high-fat diet (HFD) or a high-fat plus chickpea diet (HFD+CP) for 8 months. The epididymal fat pad weight v. total body weight of rats was higher in the HFD group (0·032 (sd 0·0042) g/g) than in the NFD group (0·015 (sd 0·0064) g/g) and smaller in the HFD+CP group (0·023 (sd 0·0072) g/g) compared with the HFD group (P < 0·05). Chickpea treatment also induced a favourable plasma lipid profile reflecting decreased TAG, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL-C:HDL-cholesterol levels (P < 0·05). HFD-fed rats had higher TAG concentration in muscle and liver, whereas the addition of chickpeas to the HFD drastically lowered TAG concentration (muscle, 39 %; liver, 23 %). The activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in epididymal adipose tissue and hepatic TAG lipase in liver recorded a 40 and 23 % increase respectively in HFD rats compared with those in NFD rats; dietary chickpeas completely normalised the levels. Furthermore, chickpea-treated obese rats also showed a markedly lower leptin and LPL mRNA content in epididymal adipose tissue. An insulin tolerance test, oral glucose tolerance test and insulin-releasing test showed that chickpeas significantly improved insulin resistance, and prevented postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia induced by the chronic HFD. The present findings provide a rational basis for the consumption of chickpeas as a functional food ingredient, which may be beneficial for correcting dyslipidaemia and preventing diabetes.
Nanoscale hollow spheres of amorphous phosphorus nitride (P3N5) were synthesized by reacting PCl3 with NaN3 at 150–250 °C. Transmission electron microscope images show that the hollow spheres have a diameter of 150–350 nm, and the thickness of the shell is 20 nm. A very small amount of curly films were also found in the sample prepared at 150 °C. The infrared spectrum indicates a high degree of purity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates the presence of P and N, with a molar ratio of 1:1.62 for P:N. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy shows an absorption band at 265–315 nm. Under photoluminescent excitation at 230 nm, the P3N5 emits ultraviolet light at 305 nm. With a band gap of 4.28 eV, the products may be a wide gap semiconductor. A possible mechanism and the influence of temperature on the formation of the hollow spheres are also discussed.