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Prior data on long-term association between habitual legume consumption and hypertension risk remained sparse. We aimed to evaluate whether total legume and subtype intakes were prospectively related to lower hypertension incidence among 8,758 participants (aged ≥30 years) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2004-2011. Dietary intakes were assessed by interviews combining 3-day 24-h food recalls and household food inventory weighing method at each survey round (median dietary assessment times during follow-up was three). Incident hypertension was identified by self-reports or blood pressure measurements. Multivariable Cox regression model was applied to estimate hazard ratio (HR) for hypertension across increasing categories of cumulatively averaged legume intake. For 35,990 person-years (median 6.0 years per person), we documented 944 hypertension cases. After adjustment for covariates, higher consumption of total legumes was significantly associated with a lower hypertension risk, with HR comparing extreme categories being 0.56 (95% CI 0.43-0.71; P for trend <0.001). Then we found that intakes of dried legumes (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.43-0.65; P for trend <0.001) and fresh legumes (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.55-0.81; P for trend <0.001) were both related to reduced hypertension risks. However, further classification of dried legumes revealed that the inverse association with hypertension substantially held for higher soybean (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.41-0.62; P for trend <0.001) but not non-soybean intakes. In stratified analyses, the association of interest remained similar within strata defined by gender, body mass index, physical activity, smoking and drinking status; however, significant heterogeneity of results was detected across age strata (P for interaction = 0.02). Total legume intake related to a more pronounced decrease in hypertension risk for the elderly (≥65 years [HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.30-0.73; P for trend <0.001]), in contrast to that for the non-elderly. Our findings suggest inverse associations of all kinds of legume but may not non-soybean intakes with risk of developing hypertension.
Water-based polyurethane/alumina hollow microsphere (WPU-hAl2O3) composite films were prepared via a facile spin coating method. The pristine WPU, as the matrix of the composite films, was tailor-made by hAl2O3 with the diameter of 2–5 μm to improve the mechanical and physical properties of the films. The hardness, surface morphology, infrared emissivity, wettability, and light transmittance of the WPU-hAl2O3 films with different hAl2O3 contents were investigated. The results indicate that the Vickers hardness, coefficient of friction, infrared emissivity at the wavelength of 2–22 μm, and wetting angle of the WPU-hAl2O3 films (30 wt%) increased by 53.6%, 51.7%, 21.1%, and 19.0%, respectively, compared with the pristine WPU films. Meanwhile, with the rising of hAl2O3 content, the light transmittance decreased by 75.3% at the wavelength of 400–800 nm. This work not only designs a kind of lightweight multifunctional composite film but also provides an effective route for extending further applications of hAl2O3 in the field of composite films.
To satisfy the needs of precise pin-point landing missions in deep space exploration, this paper proposes a method based on feature line extraction and matching to estimate the attitude and position of a lander during the descent phase. Linear equations for a lander's motion parameters are given by using at least three feature lines on the planetary surface and their two-dimensional projections. Then, by taking advantage of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), candidate solutions are obtained. Lastly, the unique lander's attitude and position relative to the landing site are selected from the candidate solutions. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is able to estimate a lander's attitude and position robustly and quickly. Without an extended Kalman filter, the average errors of attitude are less than 1° and the average errors of position are less than 10 m at an altitude of 2,000 m. With an extended Kalman filter, attitude errors are within 0·5° and position errors are within 1 m at an altitude of 247·9 m.
In this paper, we introduce a lower extremity exoskeleton CUHK-EXO that is developed to help paraplegic patients, who have lost the motor and sensory functions of their lower limbs to perform basic daily life motions. Since the sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit (STS) motion is the first step for paraplegic patients toward walking, analysis of the exoskeleton's applicability to the STS motion assistance is performed. First, the human-exoskeleton system (HES) is modeled as a five-link model during the STS motion, and the center of pressure (COP) on the ground and center of gravity of the whole system are calculated. Then, a description of the CUHK-EXO hardware design is presented, including the mechatronics design and actuator selection. The COP position is an important factor indicating system balance and wearer's comfort. Based on the COP position, a trajectory online modification algorithm (TOMA) is proposed for CUHK-EXO to counteract disturbances, stabilize system balance, and improve the wearer's comfort in the STS motion. The results of STS motion tests conducted with a paraplegic patient demonstrate that CUHK-EXO can provide a normal reference pattern and proper assistive torque to support the patient's STS motion. In addition, a pilot study is conducted with a healthy subject to verify the effectiveness of the proposed TOMA under external disturbances before future clinical trials. The testing results verify that CUHK-EXO can counteract disturbances, and help the wearer perform the STS motion safely and comfortably.
In recent years, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been increasingly recognized as a critical challenge to disease control and prevention in China. Previous studies have found that meteorological factors such as mean temperature and relative humidity were associated with HFMD. However, little is known about whether the diurnal temperature range (DTR) has any impact on HFMD. This study aimed to quantify the impact of DTR on childhood HFMD in 18 cities in Sichuan Province. A distributed lag non-linear model was adopted to explore the temporal lagged association of daily temperature with age-, gender- and pathogen-specific HFMD. A total of 290 123 HFMD cases aged 0–14 years were reported in the 18 cities in Sichuan Province. The DTR–HFMD relationships were non-linear in all subgroups. Children aged 6–14 years and male children were more vulnerable to the temperature changes. Large DTR had the higher risk estimates of HFMD incidence in cases of EV71 infection, while small DTR had the higher risk estimates of HFMD incidence in cases of CV-A16 infection. Our study suggested that DTR played an important role in the transmission of HFMD with non-linear and delayed effects.
Structural distortions at the nanoscale are delicately linked with many exotic properties for ferroic thin films. Based on advanced aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, we observe BiFeO3 thin films with variant tensile strain states and demonstrate at an atomic scale the interplay of intrinsic spontaneous structural distortions with external constraints. Structural parameters (the rhombohedral distortion and domain wall shear distortion) under zero (BiFeO3/GdScO3) and 1.5% (BiFeO3/PrScO3) lateral strain states are quantitatively analyzed which are suppressed within a few unit cells near the film/substrate interfaces. In particular, an interfacial layer with asymmetrical lattice distortions (enhanced and reduced out-of-plane lattice spacing) on the two sides of 109° domain wall is resolved. These structural distortions near the film/substrate interface in ferroic thin films reveal intense tanglement of intrinsic distortions of BiFeO3 with external boundary conditions, which could provide new insights for the development of nanoscale ferroelectric devices.
By reflowing Cu/Sn/Ni ultrafine interconnects under a temperature gradient, a new transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding process was proposed for three-dimensional packaging applications. The evolution of the dominant (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compounds depends strongly on the temperature gradient. The essential cause of such dependence is attributed to the different amounts of Cu and Ni atomic fluxes being introduced into the liquid solder. Under the coupling effect of thermomigration and Cu–Ni cross-interaction, the total atomic flux of Cu and Ni is promoted. As a result, the growth of dense (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 is significantly accelerated and the formation of Cu3Sn is eliminated. The new TLP bonding process consumes only a limited amount of the Ni substrate, but much more from the Cu substrate. The mechanism for the new TLP bonding process is discussed and experimentally verified in this study.
Numerous studies have been conducted on the cellular morphology of Cryptocaryon irritans. However, details regarding the tomont stage of its life cycle remain lacking. In this study, we investigated the morphology of the tomont stage throughout encystment and cell division using light and electron microscopy. Results showed that there was no secretion of encystation-specific secretory vesicles or extrusomes during formation of the cyst wall. Instead, the synthesis and construction of the C. irritans cyst wall materials may involve molecular events at the pellicle. The somatic cilia and the cytostome were present during encystment and covered by the newly formed cyst wall. New somatic cilia were continuously created between old cilia and showed various lengths during cell division, a process that was similar to morphogenesis in many free-living ciliates. During cell division inside the tomont, dividing daughter cells formed temporary cell chains with no oral primordia before separating from each other into dissociative tomite precursors. The process of cell division may not be accompanied by stomatogenesis, and new oral primordia in offspring cells likely formed before the dividing cell chains split into dissociative spherical tomites. Mitochondrial autophagy was observed in encysting C. irritans cells. Numerous endosymbionts and Golgi structures were observed in the tomont cytoplasm. Cellular metabolic activity in the C. irritans tomont was quite high, with large amounts of materials or cellular organelles potentially being synthesized and prepared for the following infective theront stage.
Cells of Cryptocaryon irritans at different life history stages were studied using both light and electron microscopy. The characteristics of several organelles were revealed for the first time at the ultrastructural level. It was confirmed that the cytostome of trophonts, protomonts and theronts was surrounded by cilium–palp triplets rather than ciliary triplets. The nematodesmata underlying the circumoral dikinetids were single bundles, whereas these were always paired in Prorodontids. Toxicysts were present in late-stage tomonts and theronts, but were absent in trophonts and protomonts. We posited that toxicysts might play a role in infection and invasion of host-fish tissue by theronts. The adoral brosse was unlike that of any other family of the class Prostomatea based on its location and morphology. Membranous folds were present in trophonts, protomonts and theronts. These folds were longer and more highly developed in C. irritans than in exclusively free-living prostome ciliates suggesting that they might be linked to parasitism in C. irritans. Trophonts, protomonts and theronts had multiple contractile vacuoles. The basic ultrastructure of the contractile vacuole of C. irritans was similar to that of other kinetofragminophoran ciliates. They might play different roles in different stages of the life cycle since their ultrastructure varied among trophonts, protomonts and theronts.
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) single crystals are the only nonlinear crystals currently used for electro-optic switches and frequency converters in inertial confinement fusion research, due to their large dimension and exclusive physical properties. Based on the traditional solution-growth process, large bulk KDP crystals, usually with sizes up to 600
so as to make a frequency doubler for the facility requirement loading highly flux of power laser, can be grown in standard Holden-type crystallizers, without spontaneous nucleation and visible defects, one to two orders of magnitude faster than by conventional methods. Pure water and KDP raw material with a few ion impurities such as Fe, Cr, and Al (less than 0.1 ppm) were used. The rapid-growth method includes extreme conditions such as temperature range from 60 to 35
C, overcooling up to 5
C, growth rates exceeding 10 mm/day, and crystal size up to 600 mm. The optical parameters of KDP crystals were determined. The optical properties of crystals determined indicate that they are of favorable quality for application in the facility.
Deformation mechanisms of a ZrTiAlV alloy with two ductile phases including a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure phase were investigated. A ZrTiAlV alloy was prepared via smelting, breakdown, forging, and suitable heat treatments. X-ray diffraction results show that the proposed ZrTiAlV alloy has two ductile phase structures, namely, hcp structure α-phase and bcc (body-centered cubic) structure β-phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that the plastic deformation of the examined ZrTiAlV alloy starts from the α-phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows that only dislocation slips can be found near fractured areas, and the main slip plane in the α-phase is the (0001) lattice plane. Both of the SEM and TEM results show the inexistence of deformation twin in the examined ZrTiAlV alloy including a hcp structure α-phase. Reasons for the abnormal deformation behavior of the hcp structure α-phase are also discussed.
The role of diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) has become increasingly important in the preoperative mapping of brain white matter. Recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) driven DTT has provided the ability to evaluate the spatial relationship between the corticospinal tract (CST) and motor resection tumor boundaries. The main objective of this study was improvement of the preoperative assessment of the CST in patients with gliomas involving the motor cortical areas.
Seventeen patients with gliomas involving motor cortical areas underwent 3 dimensions (3D) T1-weighted imaging for anatomical referencing, using both fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We used the fast-marching tractography (FMT) algorithm to define the 3D connectivity maps within the whole brain using seed points selected in the white matter adjacent to the location of fMRI activation. The target region of interest (ROI) was placed in the cerebral peduncle. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scores were evaluated for each patient before and after surgery.
The CST of a total seventeen patients were successfully tracked by choosing seed and target ROI on the path of the fibers. What is more, DTT can indicate preoperatively the possibility for total glioma removal or the maximum extent of surgical resection. The postoperative average KPS score for the seventeen patients enrolled increased by more than 10 points.
Incorporation of fMRI driven DTT showed a maximum benefit in surgical treatment of gliomas. Our study of the assessment precision should enhance the accuracy of glioma operations with a resulting improvement in postoperative patient outcome.
Hemispherical electron plasma waves generated from ultraintense laser interacting with a solid target having a subcritical preplasma is studied using particle-in-cell simulation. As the laser pulse propagates inside the preplasma, it becomes self-focused due to the response of the plasma electrons to the ponderomotive force. The electrons are mainly heated via betatron resonance absorption and their thermal energy can become higher than the ponderomotive energy. The hot electrons easily penetrate through the thin solid target and appear behind it as periodic hemispherical shell-like layers separated by the laser wavelength.
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as a new strain-capping material with compressive stress up to 12GPa for strained silicon technology were fabricated by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition system. The films’ compositions and bonding structures were characterized using multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy. The relationship between intrinsic stress and G peak dispersion of the films’ Raman spectra were discussed. The results showed that the bias voltage applied to substrate during deposition determines films’ sp3 bonding content and intrinsic stress. Process compatibility of the DLC films with standard CMOS technology was confirmed by using WDXRF measurement. Also diffusion behavior of carbon atoms in DLC films with copper and silicon was studied with a Cu(200nm)/DLC(40nm)/silicon multilayer structure annealed at 500℃ in N2 atmosphere for an hour. At last, stress induced on silicon surface by DLC strips was characterized using surface sensitive UV-Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that DLC films with extremely high compressive stress have potential application in future CMOS strain engineering.
Objective: Previous studies indicated that the levels of serum interleukin (IL)-12 at baseline were elevated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients compared with control subjects, suggesting that IL-12 maybe involved in the etiopathogenesis of OCD. Therefore, we study the relationship between 1188A/C polymorphism of IL-12(rs3212227) and OCD in Chinese Han population.
Methods: We genotyped 194 OCD patients and 322 healthy individuals by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), then analyzed the data using case-control association test.
Results: No significant differences were found in 1188A/C genotypic and allelic frequencies between OCD cases and controls (X2 = 2.12, df = 2, P = 0.35 by genotype; X2 = 0.005, df = 1, P = 0.94 by allele).
Conclusions: Our results suggested that there may be lack of an association between OCD and IL-12 1188A/C polymorphism in Chinese Han population.
Energetic divergent proton beams can be generated in the interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with solid-density foil targets via target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). In this paper, a scheme using a capillary to reduce the proton beam divergence is proposed. By two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, it is shown that strong transverse electric and magnetic fields rapidly grow at the inner surface of the capillary when the laser-driven hot electrons propagate through the target and into the capillary. The spontaneous magnetic field collimates the electron flow, and the ions dragged from the capillary wall by hot electrons neutralize the negative charge and thus restrain the transverse extension of the sheath field set up by electrons. The proton beam divergence, which is mainly determined by the accelerating sheath field, is therefore reduced by the transverse limitation of the sheath field in the capillary.
Vinpocetine has long been used for cerebrovascular disorders and cognitive impairment. Based on the evidence that the translocator protein (TSPO, 18 kDa) was expressed in activated microglia, while Vinpocetine was able to bind TSPO, we explored the role of Vinpocetine on microglia treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro. Our results show that both LPS and OGD induced the up-regulation of TSPO expression on BV-2 microglia by RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry. Vinpocetine inhibited the production of nitrite oxide and inflammatory factors such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in BV-2 microglia, in which cells were treated with LPS or exposed to OGD, regardless of the time Vinpocetine was added. Next, we measured cell death-related molecules Akt, Junk and p38 as well as inflammation-related molecules nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Vinpocetine did not change cell death-related molecules, but inhibited the expression of NF-κB and AP-1 in LPS-stimulated microglia, indicating that Vinpocetine has an anti-inflammatory effect by partly targeting NF-κB/AP-1. Next, conditioned medium from Vinpocetine-treated microglia protected from primary neurons. As compared with in vitro, the administration of Vinpocetine in hypoxic mice also inhibited inflammatory molecules, indicating that Vinpocetine as a unique anti-inflammatory agent may be beneficial for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases.
Collimated proton beams from laser interaction with a slab having a hole on its backside are investigated using particle-in-cell simulation. The hot target electrons driven by the laser expand rapidly into the hole. However, at the hole's corners the electrons are strongly compressed and an intense electron jet is emitted from each corner, tightly followed by the ions. The plasma jets focus and collimate along the axis of the hole and can propagate without divergence within the hole. The effect of the hole diameter on the collimated proton beam is considered.