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To detect the abnormal behaviour of ships in the waters of any jurisdiction and to improve the safety of maritime navigation, the meshing-based method is adopted to obtain discrete trajectory data and a probabilistic directed graph model is established to obtain historical data from ships' AIS (automatic identification systems). The state statistical characteristics of each node in the ship probability map are obtained to detect the navigation state of the ship in real time. By predicting the normal navigation trajectory of the ship, it can be judged whether the ship has the potential to behave abnormally at some moment in the future. Simulation experiments were designed based on a maritime simulator platform. The experimental results indicate that the model can correctly predict abnormal behaviour by ships, including excessive speed and deviation from the channel or normal sailing mode.
Excessive intake of high-energy diets is an important cause of most obesity. The intervention of rats with high-fat diet can replicate the ideal animal model for studying the occurrence of human nutritional obesity. Proteomics and bioinformatics analyses can help us to systematically and comprehensively study the effect of high-fat diet on rat liver. In the present study, 4056 proteins were identified in rat liver by using tandem mass tag. A total of 198 proteins were significantly changed, of which 103 were significantly up-regulated and ninety-five were significantly down-regulated. These significant differentially expressed proteins are primarily involved in lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism processes. The intake of a high-fat diet forces the body to maintain physiological balance by regulating these key protein spots to inhibit fatty acid synthesis, promote fatty acid oxidation and accelerate fatty acid degradation. The present study enriches our understanding of metabolic disorders induced by high-fat diets at the protein level.
High-yielding short-duration cultivars are required due to the development of mechanized large-scale double-season rice (i.e. early- and late-season rice) production in China. The objective of this study was to identify whether existing early-season rice cultivars can be used as resources to select high-yielding, short-duration (less than 115 days) cultivars of machine-transplanted late-season rice. Field experiments were conducted in Yongan, Hunan Province, China in the early and late rice-growing seasons in 2015 and 2016. Eight early-season rice cultivars (Liangyou 6, Lingliangyou 211, Lingliangyou 268, Xiangzaoxian 32, Xiangzaoxian 42, Zhongjiazao 17, Zhongzao 39, and Zhuliangyou 819) with growth durations of less than 115 days were used in 2015, and four cultivars (Lingliangyou 268, Zhongjiazao 17, Zhongzao 39, and Zhuliangyou 819) with good yield performance in the late season in 2015 were grown in 2016. All cultivars had a growth duration of less than 110 days when grown in the late season in both years. Zhongjiazao 17 produced the maximum grain yield of 9.61 Mg ha−1 with a daily grain yield of 108 kg ha−1 d−1 in the late season in 2015. Averaged across both years, Lingliangyou 268 had the highest grain yield of 8.57 Mg ha−1 with a daily grain yield of 95 kg ha−1 d−1 in the late season. The good yield performance of the early-season rice cultivars grown in the late season was mainly attributable to higher apparent radiation use efficiency. Growth duration and grain yield of early-season rice cultivars grown in the late season were not significantly related to those grown in the early season. Our study suggests that it is feasible to select high-yielding short-duration cultivars from existing early-season rice cultivars for machine-transplanted late-season rice production. Special tests by growing alternative early-season rice cultivars in the late season should be done to determine their growth duration and grain yield for such selection.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of Scutellaria baicalensis extracts (SBE) on intestinal health in terms of morphology, barrier integrity and immune responses in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli K88. A total of seventy-two weaned piglets were assigned into two groups to receive a basal diet without including antibiotic additives or the basal diet supplemented 1000 mg SBE/kg diet for 14 d. On day 15, twelve healthy piglets from each group were selected to expose to oral administration of either 10 ml 1 × 109 colony-forming units of E. coli K88 or the vehicle control. After 48 h of E.coli K88 challenge, blood was sampled, and then all piglets were killed humanely for harvesting jejunal and ileal samples. Dietary supplementation of SBE significantly decreased diarrhoea frequency and improved feed conversion ratio (P < 0·05). SBE supplementation to E.coli K88-challenged piglets improved villous height and villous height/crypt depth (P < 0·05), recovered the protein expression of occludin and zonula occludens-2 in both the jejunum and ileum (P < 0·05), and mitigated the increases in plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IgA and IgG (P < 0·05). Meanwhile, dietary SBE effectively inhibited the stimulation of NF-κB, P38 and TNF-α as well as IL-1β in the small intestine of piglets challenged by E. coli K88 and prevented the activation of NF-κB/P38 signalling pathways (P < 0·05). Collectively, SBE supplementation can potently attenuate diarrhoea in weaning piglets and decrease inflammatory cytokine expressions through inhibiting the NF-κB and P38 signalling pathways.
We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.
Uniform distribution of diamond grains is difficult to achieve using traditional fabrication of the micro grinding wheel. The design and performance of novel resinous diamond composites (RDCs) fabricated by hot pressing molding were studied to fabricate micro resinous diamond grinding wheels. The physical and mechanical properties of RDCs were analyzed by constructing and simulating five kinds of RDCs, including acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)/polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/dioctyl phthalate (DOP)/diamond materials with different mass ratios. Diamond grains presented good compatibility with the ABS–PVC–DOP copolymer, which resulted in improved mechanical properties of RDCs. RDC1–RDC5 samples were fabricated, and their hardness, surface roughness, and infrared spectra were analyzed. The optimal mass ratio of ABS/PVC/diamond/DOP for fabricating RDCs was 62.5/18.6/10.6/8.3. The results provide guidance in fabricating novel materials for resinous diamond grinding wheels with desirable performances for precision and ultraprecision machining.
Gallstone disease (GSD) represents a significant health burden and is reported to be strongly related to obesity. This study examined the effect of sex on the association of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and percentage body fat mass (%FM) with GSD. We enrolled 15 671 middle-aged Taiwanese adults undergoing a physical check-up at a health examination centre. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the association of BMI, WC and %FM with the presence of GSD. AUC of the receiver–operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for BMI, WC and %FM to compare their respective ability to correctly classify patients with GSD. From our findings, GSD prevalence was 8·1 % in men and 6·3 % in women. The percentage of markedly increased obesity indicators was significantly higher in patients with GSD than in those without GSD. Multivariate analysis showed that all obesity indicators were significant predictors of the presence of GSD in women after adjustment. In men, only BMI and WC were significantly associated with the presence of GSD. In the ROC curve analysis, BMI and WC were the best predictors of GSD risk in women and men, respectively. The obesity indicators better predicted the presence of GSD in women than in men. In conclusion, the best obesity indicator of GSD risk differed by sex. In addition to body weight, fat mass and central obesity were associated with GSD risk in women. In men, central obesity may play a more important role in predicting GSD risk.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
We sought to examine the potential modifiers in the association between long-term low-dose folic acid supplementation and the reduction of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) among hypertensive patients, using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). This analysis included 16 867 participants who had complete data on tHcy measurements at both the baseline and exit visit. After a median treatment period of 4·5 years, folic acid treatment significantly reduced the tHcy levels by 1·6 μmol/l (95 % CI 1·4, 1·8). More importantly, after adjustment for baseline tHcy and other important covariates, a greater degree of tHcy reduction was observed in certain subgroups: males, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677TT genotype, higher baseline tHcy levels (≥12·5 (median) v. <12·5 μmol/l), lower folate levels (<8·0 (median) v. ≥8·0 ng/ml), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1·73 m2 (v. 60–<90 and ≥90 ml/min per 1·73 m2), ever smokers and concomitant use of diuretics (P for all interactions <0·05). The degree of tHcy reduction associated with long-term folic acid supplementation can be significantly affected by sex, MTHFR C677T genotypes, baseline folate, tHcy, eGFR levels and smoking status.
Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) represents a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel diseases and strongly prefers aromatic amino acid ligands. We investigated the regulatory effects of dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids – tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine (TPT) – on the CaSR signalling pathway and intestinal inflammatory response. The in vivo study was conducted with weanling piglets using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a randomised complete block design. Piglets were fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with TPT and with or without inflammatory challenge. The in vitro study was performed in porcine intestinal epithelial cell line to investigate the effects of TPT on inflammatory response using NPS-2143 to inhibit CaSR. Dietary supplementation of TPT alleviated histopathological injury and decreased myeloperoxidase activity in intestine challenged with lipopolysaccharide. Dietary supplementation of TPT decreased serum concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TNF-α), as well as the mRNA abundances of pro-inflammatory cytokines in intestine but enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and transforming growth factor-β mRNA levels compared with pigs fed control diet and infected by lipopolysaccharide. Supplementation of TPT increased CaSR and phospholipase Cβ2 protein levels, but decreased inhibitor of NF-κB kinase α/β and inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein levels in the lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets. When the CaSR signalling pathway was blocked by NPS-2143, supplementation of TPT decreased the CaSR protein level, but enhanced phosphorylated NF-κB and IκB levels in IPEC-J2 cells. To conclude, supplementation of aromatic amino acids alleviated intestinal inflammation as mediated through the CaSR signalling pathway.
Jurassic sandstones in the Xiongcun porphyry copper–gold district, southern Lhasa subterrane, Tibet, China were analysed for petrography, major oxides and trace elements, as well as detrital zircon U–Pb and Hf isotopes, to infer their depositional age, provenance, intensity of source-rock palaeo-weathering and depositional tectonic setting. This new information provides important evidence to constrain the tectonic evolution of the southern Lhasa subterrane during the Late Triassic – Jurassic period. The sandstones are exposed in the lower and upper sections of the Xiongcun Formation. Their average modal abundance (Q21F11L68) classifies them as lithic arenite, which is also supported by geochemical studies. The high chemical index of alteration values (77.19–85.36, mean 79.96) and chemical index of weathering values (86.19–95.59, mean 89.98) of the sandstones imply moderate to intensive weathering of the source rock. Discrimination diagrams based on modal abundance, geochemistry and certain elemental ratios indicate that felsic and intermediate igneous rocks constitute the source rocks, probably with a magmatic arc provenance. The detrital zircon ages (161–243 Ma) and εHf(t) values (+10.5 to +16.2) further constrain the sandstone provenance as subduction-related Triassic–Jurassic felsic and intermediate igneous rocks from the southern Lhasa subterrane. A tectonic discrimination method based on geochemical data of the sandstones, as well as detrital zircon ages from sandstones, reveals that the sandstones were most likely deposited in an oceanic island-arc setting. These results support the hypothesis that the tectonic background of the southern Lhasa subterrane was an oceanic island-arc setting, rather than a continental island-arc setting, during the Late Triassic – Jurassic period.
In the present study, direct numerical simulation (DNS) is carried out in a minimal channel at
to sustain healthy turbulence below
. Turbulence intensities are compared with those of the motions at the same scales as the minimal channel in the full-sized channel at
(Hoyas & Jiménez, Phys. Fluids, vol. 20 (10), 2008, article 101511). They show good agreement in
. The universal signals for the three velocity components similar to that in the predictive model of Marusic et al. (Science, vol. 329 (5988), 2010, pp. 193–196) are extracted from the DNS data of the full-sized channel. They correspond well to the near-wall velocity fluctuations in the minimal flow unit (MFU). The predictive models for the three components of near-wall velocity fluctuations are proposed based on the MFU data. The predicted turbulence intensities as well as the joint probability density functions of velocity fluctuations agree well with the DNS results of the full-sized channel turbulence.
This study examines the relationship between groundwater irrigation and off-farm employment with a set of household level data collected in North China. The results provide evidence that off-farm employment reduces both time spent on irrigation in terms of total hours of irrigation and the amount of groundwater pumped. However, these effects have not resulted in losses of crop production. In fact, water productivity measured as output value produced per m3 of groundwater pumped is higher among households with off-farm employment. These seemingly contradictory findings are explained by the increased use of water-saving technologies such as furrow irrigation, underground pipes and/or lined canals. These technologies reduce seepage losses during the conveyance of groundwater as well as during irrigation of the fields. As a result, less groundwater needs to be pumped to achieve the same level of groundwater irrigation application rate in the field.
Networking behaviors toward career and community domains assist individuals in doing their jobs better and advancing their careers. However, few studies investigate and identify how these different types of networking behaviors lead to supervisory promotability evaluations. The current study argues that career- and community-based networking behaviors interact with political skill on promotability. This study surveyed and collected data from 160 financial employees and 103 supervisors working at branches of a large bank in Taiwan. Career-based networking behaviors, particularly maintaining contacts and engaging in professional activities, were found to be positively related to promotability, and political skill strengthened the relationship between community-based networking behaviors and promotability. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of networking behaviors, political skill, and promotability.
Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner is a major leaf pest of sugarcane. Widely distributed, it affects both the yield and quality of sugarcane in China. This study aimed to assess real yield and sugar yield losses, and the effect of C. lanigera damage on emergence of newly planted and ratoon cane under current production levels. Field experiments were carried out from 2014 to 2016 in Yunnan Province China. At maturity, plants were harvested and weighed to determine yield, and the effect on sugarcane quality and sucrose content analyzed. Real yield decreased by average of 46,185 kg hm−2 (range: 37,545–61,845 kg hm−2) in damaged versus undamaged areas, with an average yield loss rate of 35.9% (28.5–45.7%). Juice yield decreased by an average of 3.01% (2.4–4.13%) and sucrose content by 6.38% (5.48–8.16%). Juice brix decreased by an average of 7.66°BX (6.95–9.05°BX) and juice gravity purity by 12.35% (8.43–19.97%). In contrast, the reducing sugar content increased by an average of 1.21% (1.01–1.3%). Emergence rates of newly planted cane decreased by an average of 26.0% (24.7–27.3%). The emergence number of ratoon cane decreased by 66,834 hm2 (57,429–76,238 hm−2) and relative emergence loss rates of ratoon cane decreased by an average of 57.8% (57.6–58.0%). These findings confirm that C. lanigera damage severely affects sugarcane yield and quality in Yunnan Province. The results will help the implementation of effective control measures, thereby supporting sustainable development of the Chinese sugar industry.
Multiplicative noise removal is a challenging problem in image restoration. In this paper, by applying Box-Cox transformation, we convert the multiplicative noise removal problem into the additive noise removal problem and the block matching three dimensional (BM3D) method is applied to get the final recovered image. Indeed, BM3D is an effective method to remove additive Gaussian white noise in images. A maximum likelihood method is designed to determine the parameter in the Box-Cox transformation. We also present the unbiased inverse transform for the Box-Cox transformation which is important. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results illustrate clearly that the proposed method can remove multiplicative noise very well especially when multiplicative noise is heavy. The proposed method is superior to the existing methods for multiplicative noise removal in the literature.