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The promise of an economy that creates good jobs, promotes social justice, and improves environmental quality is an alluring one. Proponents of a green economy argue that businesses and communities can overcome contradictions and conflicts between economic, social, and environmental goals through pursuit of the triple bottom line. Yet there is little consensus on what the green economy is and how to achieve it. In this chapter, we review the empirical studies on existing green economic arrangements in different parts of the world. We identify four streams of activities: macroeconomic restructuring, spatial replanning, industrial redesign, and local revitalization. Our review suggests that existing empirical studies remain overwhelmingly practical in their orientation, which leaves much room for theoretically motivated environmental sociological analyses. We conclude with a call for an environmental sociology of green economies that has the potential to enrich the academic literature and enable real-world transformations.
Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) is a novel indicator of visceral obesity, but little is known about the association between CVAI and risk of hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the association of CVAI and its 6-year change with hypertension risk and compare the ability of CVAI and other obesity indices to predict hypertension based on the Rural Chinese Cohort Study. Study participants were randomly recruited by a cluster sampling procedure, and 10,304 participants ≥18 years were included. Modified Poisson regression was used to derive adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified 2,072 hypertension cases during a median of 6.03 years of follow-up. The RRs (95% CIs) for the highest versus lowest CVAI quartile were 1.29 (1.05-1.59) for men and 1.53 (1.22-1.91) for women. Per-standard deviation (SD) increase in CVAI associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16) and women (1.14, 1.06-1.22). Also, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value for hypertension was higher for CVAI than the four other obesity indices for both sexes (all P < 0.05). Finally, per-SD increase in CVAI change associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.16-1.36) and women (1.23, 1.15-1.30). Similar results were observed in sensitivity analyses. CVAI and its 6-year change are positively associated with hypertension risk. CVAI has better performance in predicting hypertension than other visceral obesity indices for both sexes. The current findings suggest CVAI as a reliable and applicable predictor of hypertension in rural Chinese adults.
Thrombocytopenia occasionally occurs following the closure of some giant patent ductus arteriosus cases. Unfortunately, there is no associated research describing the associated risk factors for thrombocytopenia post-procedure.
We reviewed all patients who received occluders with sizes ≥10/12 mm between January 2013 and June 2019. All the data and information on the characteristics of the patients and their follow-up were recorded. Univariate analysis, receiver operating characteristic curves, and linear regression were used to analyse the risk factors for thrombocytopenia and the predictors of hospitalisation stay.
Finally, 32 patients (17.5%) suffered from thrombocytopenia. Univariate analysis revealed the ratio between occluder disc size (mm) and body weight (kg) (1.71 ± 0.51 versus 1.35 ± 0.53) as an independent predictive factor for thrombocytopenia, and the area under the curve of the ratio of occluder size and body weight for predicting thrombocytopenia post-closure was 0.691 (95% confidence interval: 0.589–0.792, p = 0.001). The best cut-off value for the ratio of occluder size and weight was 1.5895, with a sensitivity and specificity of 68.8 and 66.9%, respectively. Each unit of the ratio of occluder size and body weight predicted an average hospitalisation stay of 2.856 days (95% confidence interval: 1.380–4.332). Treatment with medication did not reduce the hospitalisation stay or benefit platelet restoration.
Once the ratio of occluder size and body weight is greater than 1.6, thrombocytopenia always exists. Every unit of the ratio of occluder size and body weight represents an additional 3 days of hospitalisation. Treatment does not reduce the duration of hospitalisation.
To measure the associations of sociodemographic and behavioural factors with fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in China.
A cross-sectional study.
A 2015 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey.
Totally, 11 910 adults aged 18 to 64 years.
Adjusted log binomial regression analyses showed that adults with higher income levels had higher fruit intake than those with low income levels (medium income group, risk ratio (RR): 1·28; 95 % CI: 1·16, 1·41; high income group, RR: 1·58; 95 % CI: 1·43, 1·74). Current smokers had lower fruit intake than non-smokers (RR: 0·86; 95 % CI: 0·77, 0·96). Adults living in southern China had higher vegetable intake (RR: 1·88; 95 % CI: 1·76, 2·01) but lower fruit intake (RR: 0·85; 95 % CI: 0·79, 0·91) than adults in northern China. With increasing age, adults had higher fruit intake (50–64 years, RR: 1·20; 95 % CI: 1·09, 1·33; reference category 18–34 years) and higher vegetable intake (35–49 years, RR: 1·13; 95 % CI: 1·05, 1·22; 50–64 years, RR: 1·22; 95 % CI: 1·13, 1·31).
Our findings identify a range of sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among Chinese adults. They also point to the need for public health nutrition interventions for socially disadvantaged populations in China.
Losing one's only child is a major traumatic life event that may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the underlying mechanisms of its psychological consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated subregional hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) networks based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and the deoxyribonucleic acid methylation of the human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adults who had lost their only child.
A total of 144 Han Chinese adults who had lost their only child (51 adults with PTSD and 93 non-PTSD adults [trauma-exposed controls]) and 50 controls without trauma exposure were included in this fMRI study (age: 40–67 years). FCs between hippocampal subdivisions (four regions in each hemisphere: cornu ammonis1 [CA1], CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus [DG]) and methylation levels of the NR3C1 gene were compared among the three groups.
Trauma-exposed adults, regardless of PTSD diagnosis, had weaker positive FC between the left hippocampal CA1, left DG, and the posterior cingulate cortex, and weaker negative FC between the right CA1, right DG, and several frontal gyri, relative to healthy controls. Compared to non-PTSD adults, PTSD adults showed decreased negative FC between the right CA1 region and the right middle/inferior frontal gyri (MFG/IFG), and decreased negative FC between the right DG and the right superior frontal gyrus and left MFG. Both trauma-exposed groups showed lower methylation levels of the NR3C1 gene.
Adults who had lost their only child may experience disrupted hippocampal network connectivity and NR3C1 methylation status, regardless of whether they have developed PTSD.
Octapyrgites elongatus n. gen. n. sp., a relatively rare, tetraradial olivooid (Cnidaria, Medusozoa), is described from Bed 5 of the Yanjiahe Formation (Cambrian Stage 2) near Yichang, China. Although similar to Olivooides and Quadrapyrgites from the Fortunian Stage in consisting of a partially corrugated (longitudinal) periderm with a quadrate (transverse) apical portion and V-shaped apertural lobes, O. elongatus is substantially larger than other olivooids. The elongate apical region of O. elongatus is similar to four-sided Anaconularia anomala (Barrande, 1867), though with a flat tip that may have been an adaption for a sessile mode of life. As in other olivooids, embryonic development in O. elongatus may have been direct. Last, the paucity of olivooids and the absence of pentaradial cnidarians and carinachitids in Cambrian Stage 2 indicate a marked decline in the disparity of cnidarians near the Fortunian–Cambrian Age 2 boundary, when by contrast bilaterians underwent rapid diversification.
To achieve fast satellite selection for a multi-Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), thereby reducing the burden on a receiver's processing element and the cost of hardware, and improving the utilisation ratio of receiver signal channels, the relationship between the number of satellites and Geometric Dilution Of Precision (GDOP), the number of satellites selected and the computation time is analysed. A fast rotating partition algorithm for satellite selection based on equal distribution of the sky is proposed. The algorithm divides the satellite selection process into two parts: rough selection and detailed selection. Unhealthy satellites, according to a health identifier, and low elevation angle satellites with a large troposphere delay are eliminated during the rough selection process. During the detailed satellite selection process, the satellite sky is divided and rotated to match satellites based on the average angle distance between the satellite and central partition line. Static data from the International GNSS Service (IGS) station and dynamic data collected at China University of Mining and Technology were used to verify the algorithm, and the results demonstrated that an inverse matrix could be avoided to reduce computation complexity. Additionally, the new satellite selection algorithm has the merit that there is little effect on the computation when the selected satellites and number of satellites in the field increased. A single system of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and double system of GPS/Globalnaya Navigazionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) both passed the hypothesis test for each epoch. By including BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) data, data utilisation increased to more than 95% using the rotating partition algorithm. Also, the GDOP and positioning performance of a rotating partition algorithm and an optimal Dilution Of Precision (DOP) algorithm are compared in this paper, and the analysis result shows that both of the algorithms have only a small difference of GDOP and have comparable positioning performance.
The financial system can be shown to be a complex adaptive system consisting primarily of a federation of systems and systems of systems. There are significant similarities between the characteristics of natural systems and financial systems suggesting that the type of analysis employed in understanding natural systems could have application in financial system analysis. Cladistics analysis has been used extensively for analysis of biological systems and has accordingly been used in the social sciences for some years but a rigorous justification for adopting the analysis has not been undertaken. This paper discusses the appropriateness of applying cladistics analysis to financial systems, and then considers the appropriate methodology to be adopted for analysis of different financial events.
The global banking system can be shown to be a Complex Adaptive System that exhibits phase transitions from time to time. These phase transitions can result in significant financial losses to the community that we estimate to be much more significant than losses occurring during “business as usual” periods. In this paper, we argue that the significant losses arising from phase transitions in the banking system requires a very different approach to regulation than the current Basel regime, and that there is a need to transition the Basel regime from a Federation of Systems to a System of Systems. We demonstrate that the World Health Organisation’s recent management system for pandemics is ideally suited for management of the global banking system and would have greater potential to control the phase transition losses than the current Basel system.
Operational risk events in banks include extreme events with significant losses being incurred and with substantial impact on share prices. A pooling arrangement between banks that would be able to reduce overall costs and reduce share price impacts would seem desirable, but one of the major inhibiting factors to establish the feasibility of such a pooling arrangement is that statistical models of these extreme events are difficult to build with any reliability. This paper uses both quantitative and qualitative analysis of operational risk losses for EU and US banks over the period 2008–2014 to establish the feasibility of creating a pooling arrangement between the banks and concludes that such an arrangement might be feasible but would require compulsory membership of the pool and capping of losses.
Heavy-tailed distributions have been observed for various financial risks and papers have observed that these heavy-tailed distributions are power law distributions. The breakdown of a power law distribution is also seen as an indicator of a tipping point being reached and a system then moves from stability through instability to a new equilibrium. In this paper, we analyse the distribution of operational risk losses in US banks, credit defaults in US corporates and market risk events in the US during the global financial crisis (GFC). We conclude that market risk and credit risk do not follow a power law distribution, and even though operational risk follows a power law distribution, there is a better distribution fit for operational risk. We also conclude that whilst there is evidence that credit defaults and market risks did reach a tipping point, operational risk losses did not. We conclude that the government intervention in the banking system during the GFC was a possible cause of banks avoiding a tipping point.
Welding was successfully used in the fabrication of low pressure steam turbine rotors for nuclear power plants. In this paper, the local brittle zone of the welded joint in NiCrMoV steel with heavy section was investigated by cross-zone fracture toughness test and the effect of martensite–austenite constituent in the simulated reheated zone of welds with different second peak temperature on toughness was analyzed. The results showed that the crack propagated in unstable manner in the reheated zone of welds where the martensite–austenite constituent promoted the initiation and propagation of the crack. The fine structure of martensite–austenite constituent contained retained austenite, martensite, and martensite–austenite mixture microstructure. The impact toughness deteriorated drastically in the incomplete phase transition zone for the simulated reheated zone of welds related to the formation of mixture microstructure in which large blocky martensite–austenite constituent at prior austenite grain boundaries and inside the grains were distributed in the shape of network.
This paper explores the characteristics of 2,141 operational risk events amongst European (EU) and US banks over the period 2008–2014. We have analysed the operational risk events using a method originating in biology for the study of interrelatedness of characteristics in a complex adaptive system. The methodology, called cladistics, provides insights into the relationships between characteristics of operational risk events in banks that is not available from the traditional statistical analysis. We have used cladistics to explore if there are consistent patterns of operational risk characteristics across banks in single and different geographic zones. One significant pattern emerged which indicates there are key, stable characteristics across both geographic zones and across banks in each zone. The results identify the characteristics that could then be managed by the banks to reduce operational risk losses. We also have analysed separately the characteristics of operational risk events for “big” banks and extreme events and these results indicate that big banks and small banks have similar key operational risk characteristics, but the characteristics of extreme operational risk events are different to those for the non-extreme events.
Percutaneous transcatheter occlusion has benefited thousands of patients suffering from patent foramen ovale and atrial septal defect. However, no general agreement has been reached on the superiority among occluders. Thus, a meta-analysis between the two most commonly adopted types of occluders was conducted.
The literature review has identified relevant studies up to May, 2011 in the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and World Health Organization clinical trials registry centre. Meta-analysis was performed in a fixed/random effects model using Revman 5.1.1. Information on complications and outcomes was extracted.
Analysis from included studies reports an outcome in favour of the Amplatzer. The Amplatzer has proven its superiority in efficacy with a significantly lower risk of early (95% confidence interval = 0.09–0.34) and long-term (95% confidence interval = 0.14–0.97) residual shunt rate for atrial septal defect occlusion, although no significant difference in performance has been reported for patent foramen ovale. In addition, the Amplatzer has also remarkably reduced the risk of embolisation by the device (95% confidence interval = 0.07–0.45) for atrial septal defect and new-set atrial fibrillation (95% confidence interval = 0.18–0.48) for patent foramen ovale. On evaluation of recurrent thrombotic events, it was found that the Amplatzer greatly lowered the rate of thrombus formation on the device (95% confidence interval = 0.02–0.21) for patent foramen ovale; however, no statistical difference was found on atrial septal defect evaluation. However, the result indicated no statistically significant difference between the two kinds of occluders in stroke and transient ischaemic attack of patent foramen ovale.
The meta-analysis has proven the Amplatzer to be the superior occluder, serving better prognosis with more fluent procedure and less complications.
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