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Cyperus rotundus L. is a globally distributed noxious weed that poses a significant challenge for control due to its fast and efficient propagation through the tuber, which is the primary reproductive organ. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has proved to be crucial for tuberization in tuberous plants. Therefore, understanding the relationship between GA3 and tuber development and propagation of C.roundus will provide valuable information for controlling this weed. This study shows that the content of GA3 decreases with tuber development, which corresponds to lower expression of bioactive GA3 synthesis genes (CrGA20ox, two CrGA3oxs) and two up-regulated GA3 catabolism genes (CrGA2oxs), indicating that GA3 is involved in tuber development. Simultaneously, the expressions of CrDELLAs and CrGID1 decline with tuber growth and GA3 decreasing, and Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays confirm that the GA3 signaling is DELLA-dependent. Furthermore, exogenous application of GA3 markedly reduces the number and the width of tuber, and represses the growth of tuber chain, further confirming the negative impact that GA3 has on tuber development and propagation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GA3 is involved in tuber development and regulated by the DELLA-dependent pathway in C. rotundus, and plays a negative role in tuber development and propagation.
Objectives: Rapid and accurate screening for carbapenemase-producing organism (CPOs) in hospitalized patients is critical for infection control and prevention. The Xpert Carba-R assay is designed for rapid detection of CPOs, but 1 assay is usually conducted for only 1 sample. We evaluated a pooling strategy for CPO screening using the Xpert Carba-R assay. Methods: Swab sets containing 2 swabs were collected from 415 unique patients at Peking University People’s Hospital. One swab was used for the pooling test, in which 5 swabs from different patients were mixed in 1 sample treatment solution. The prevalence of CPOs in the hospital (5.3%) predicted that 5:1 pooling was most economical. As the reference method, the other swab was tested by culture using sequencing. Results: Of 415 samples, 383 were CPO negative using the pooling test strategy and 31 were positive. All samples that were negative by pooling were negative by culture and sequencing. Among the 31 positive samples identified by the pooling strategy, 26 were positive by culture and sequencing (including 24 samples with 1 targeted gene and 2 samples with double targeted genes, 1 NDM+/IMP+ and 1 VIM+/IMP+), and 5 were negative. Overall, 198 tests were conducted in the study, and 217 were saved compared with testing individually. The efficiency of the pooling strategy was 215%. The overall sensitivity was 1 (95% CI, 0.840–1), the specificity was 0.987 (95% CI, 0.968–0.995), the accuracy was 0.987 (95% CI, 0.970–0.996), positive predictive value was 0.838 (95% CI, 0.655–0.939), and the negative predictive value was 1 (95% CI, 0.988–1). Conclusions: The pooling strategy using the Xpert Carba-R assay showed good potential in screening CPO with good sensitivity and a significantly lower cost.
Objectives: The number of lung transplants is increasing year by year in China and globally. With the widespread use of donation after brainstem death (DBD) donor lungs and donation after circulatory death (DCD) donor lungs, donor-derived infection (DDI) poses a major challenge in lung transplantation. Using donor lungs infected or colonized with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) may have serious implications in lung-transplant recipients. Currently, traditional microbial culture along with antimicrobial susceptibility testing cannot fully meet the need for rapid and accurate diagnosis of CRE infection in a donor before organ harvest. Methods: The Xpert Carba-R device (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) was used to detect and differentiate Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (VIM), active-on-imipenem (IMP), and OXA-48 carbapenemase genotypes in bronchial lavage fluid from donor lungs before organ harvest. Positive detection of 1 or more of these genotypes indicated a potentially CRE-infected donor lung, and these organs were removed from the lung transplantation cohort. Donor lungs negative for all KPC, NDM, VIM, IMP, and OXA-48 genotypes determined by the Xpert Carba-R device were used for lung transplantation. The incidence of CRE-associated DDI and infection-related complications were compared in the Xpert Carba-R screening group and an historic control group. Results: In this study, 21 donor lungs were tested with the Xpert Carba-R device to detect and differentiate carbapenemase genotypes. Among them, 4 were positive for 1 or more carbapenemase genotypes and were discarded, and the remaining 17 donor lungs showing no carbapenemase gene presence were used for lung transplantation. No CRE-associated DDI occurred in these 17 lung-transplant recipients. Conclusions: Rapid and accurate detection of the carbapenemase gene in donor lungs at the point of care before transplantation using the Xpert Carba-R device reduced the risk of CRE-associated DDI in lung-transplant recipients.
To investigate the association between folate levels and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk during the whole pregnancy.
In this retrospective cohort study of pregnant women, serum folate levels were measured before 24 gestational weeks (GW). GDM was diagnosed between 24th and 28th GW based on the criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups. General linear models were performed to examine the association of serum folate with plasma glucose (i.e. linear regressions) and risk of GDM (i.e. log-binomial regressions) after controlling for confounders. Restricted cubic spline regression was conducted to test the dosage–response relationship between serum folate and the risk of GDM.
A sigle, urban hospital in Shanghai, China.
A total of 42 478 women who received antenatal care from April 2013 to March 2017 were included.
Consistent positive associations were observed between serum folate and plasma glucose levels (fasting, 1-h, 2-h). The adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI of GDM across serum folate quartiles were 1·00 (reference), 1·15 (95 % CI (1·04, 1·26)), 1·40 (95 % CI (1·27, 1·54)) and 1·54 (95 % CI (1·40, 1·69)), respectively (P-for-trend < 0·001). The positive association between serum folate and GDM remained when stratified by vitamin B12 (adequate v. deficient groups) and the GW of serum folate measurement (≤13 GW v. >13 GWs)
The findings of this study may provide important evidence for the public health and clinical guidelines of pregnancy folate supplementation in terms of GDM prevention.
No relevant studies have yet been conducted to explore which measurement can best predict the survival time of patients with cancer cachexia. This study aimed to identify an anthropometric measurement that could predict the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia. We conducted a nested case–control study using data from a multicentre clinical investigation of cancer from 2013 to 2020. Cachexia was defined using the Fearon criteria. A total of 262 patients who survived less than 1 year and 262 patients who survived more than 1 year were included in this study. Six candidate variables were selected based on clinical experience and previous studies. Five variables, BMI, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, calf circumference and triceps skin fold (TSF), were selected for inclusion in the multivariable model. In the conditional logistic regression analysis, TSF (P = 0·014) was identified as a significant independent protective factor. A similar result was observed in all patients with cancer cachexia (n 3084). In addition, a significantly stronger positive association between TSF and the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia was observed in participants aged > 65 years (OR: 0·94; 95 % CI 0·89, 0·99) than in those aged ≤ 65 years (OR: 0·96; 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99; Pinteraction = 0·013) and in participants with no chronic disease (OR: 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·97) than in those with chronic disease (OR: 0·97; 95 % CI 0·94, 1·00; Pinteraction = 0·049). According to this study, TSF might be a good anthropometric measurement for predicting 1-year survival in patients with cancer cachexia.
Schizophrenia is considered a polygenic disorder. People with schizophrenia and those with genetic high risk of schizophrenia (GHR) have presented with similar neurodevelopmental deficits in hemispheric asymmetry. The potential associations between neurodevelopmental abnormalities and schizophrenia-related risk genes in both schizophrenia and those with GHR remains unclear.
To investigate the shared and specific alternations to the structural network in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR. And to identify an association between vulnerable structural network alternation and schizophrenia-related risk genes.
A total of 97 participants with schizophrenia, 79 participants with GHR and 192 healthy controls, underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans at a single site. We used graph theory to characterise hemispheric and whole-brain structural network topological metrics. For 26 people in the schizophrenia group and 48 in the GHR group with DTI scans we also calculated their schizophrenia-related polygenic risk scores (SZ-PRSs). The correlations between alterations to the structural network and SZ-PRSs were calculated. Based on the identified genetic–neural association, bioinformatics enrichment was explored.
There were significant hemispheric asymmetric deficits of nodal efficiency, global and local efficiency in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Hemispheric asymmetric deficit of local efficiency was significantly positively correlated with SZ-PRSs in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Bioinformatics enrichment analysis showed that these risk genes may be linked to signal transduction, neural development and neuron structure. The schizophrenia group showed a significant decrease in the whole-brain structural network.
The shared asymmetric deficits in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR, and the association between anomalous asymmetry and SZ-PRSs suggested a vulnerability imaging marker regulated by schizophrenia-related risk genes. Our findings provide new insights into asymmetry regulated by risk genes and provides a better understanding of the genetic–neural pathological underpinnings of schizophrenia.
Nanoscale magnetization modulation by electric field enables the construction of low-power spintronic devices for information storage applications and, etc. Electric field-induced ion migration can introduce desired changes in the material's stoichiometry, defect profile, and lattice structure, which in turn provides a versatile and convenient means to modify the materials’ chemical-physical properties at the nanoscale and in situ. In this review, we provide a brief overview on the recent study on nanoscale magnetization modulation driven by electric field-induced migration of ionic species either within the switching material or from external sources. The formation of magnetic conductive filaments that exhibit magnetoresistance behaviors in resistive switching memory via foreign metal ion migration and redox activities is also discussed. Combining the magnetoresistance and quantized conductance switching of the magnetic nanopoint contact structure may provide a future high-performance device for non-von Neumann computing architectures.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle intervention programme, combined with a daily low-glycaemic index meal replacement, on body-weight and glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Subjects with IGR were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n 46) and a control group (n 42). Both groups received health counselling at baseline. The intervention group also received a daily meal replacement and intensive lifestyle intervention to promote healthy eating habits during the first 3 months of the study, and follow-up visits performed monthly until the end of the 1-year study. Outcome measurements included changes in plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), plasma lipids, body weight, blood pressure and body composition (such as body fat mass and visceral fat area). The results showed that body-weight loss after 1 year was significant in the intervention group compared with the control group ( − 1·8 (sem 0·35) v.− 0·6 (sem 0·40) 2·5 kg, P< 0·05). The 2 h plasma glucose concentration decreased 1·24 mmol/l in the intervention group and increased 0·85 mmol/l in the control group (P< 0·05) compared with their baseline, respectively. A 5 kg body-weight loss at 1 year was associated with a decrease of 1·49 mmol/l in 2 h plasma glucose (P< 0·01). The incidence of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in the two groups was significantly different (P= 0·001). In conclusion, the combination of regular contact, lifestyle advice and meal replacement is beneficial in promoting IGR to NGR.
To compare molecular typing by amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with respect to the ability to differentiate between epidemiologically related and unrelated isolates of common nosocomial pathogens recovered during a period of endemicity.
Retrospective laboratory analysis.
17 isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii, 22 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 22 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) were typed by both methods.
AFLP generated comparable results to PFGE for A baumannii and P aeruginosa isolates; both methods identified epidemiologically related and unrelated isolates. However, strain typing of VRE isolates produced discordant results between the two methods. PFGE identified 10 different strain types and differentiated between all epidemiologically related and unrelated isolates. In contrast, AFLP generated only five different strain types, three of which contained both epidemiologically related and unrelated isolates.
Molecular typing by AFLP is comparable to PFGE for A baumannii and P aeruginosa isolates. For VRE isolates, however, PFGE remains the method of choice.
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