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Advanced Ni8W/Ni12W/Ni8W alloy composite substrates used in YBCO-coated conductors with a strong cube texture and high yield strength have been fabricated, and a CeO2 buffer layer film was successfully deposited on the composite substrates. Through in situ tensile testing coupled with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the stability of the cube texture of Ni8W/Ni12W/Ni8W alloy composite substrates has been investigated. The stress–strain curve shows that the yield strength (at 0.2% strain) of the composite substrates exceeds 250 Mpa. The orientation of grains and boundaries on the surface of the substrates was almost unchanged, while the strain exceeds 0.2%, which indicated that the composite substrates are adequate for depositing buffer layers and YBCO layers by the reel-to-reel process.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Hundred and seventy patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic, and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 3-month follow-up.
At 4 weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen’s d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5% vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36−0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8 weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4 weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32−0.48). At 3-month follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02−4.42, p=0.04] and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27−6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest that GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
Hepatitis B constitutes a severe public health challenge in China. The Community-based Collaborative Innovation hepatitis B (CCI-HBV) project is a national epidemiological study of hepatitis B and has been conducting a comprehensive intervention in southern Zhejiang since 2009.
The comprehensive intervention in CCI-HBV areas includes the dynamic hepatitis B screening in local residents, the normalised treatment for hepatitis B infections and the upcoming full-aged hepatitis B vaccination. After two rounds of screening (each round taking for 4 years), the initial epidemiological baseline of hepatitis B in Qinggang was obtained, a coastal community in east China. By combining key data and system dynamics modelling, the regional hepatitis B epidemic in 20 years was predicted.
There were 1041 HBsAg positive cases out of 12 228 people in Round 1 indicating HBV prevalence of 8.5%. Of the 13 146 people tested in Round 2, 1171 people were HBsAg positive, with a prevalence of 8.9%. By comparing the two rounds of screening, the HBV incidence rate of 0.192 per 100 person-years was observed. By consulting electronic medical records, the HBV onset rate of 0.533 per 100 person-years was obtained. We generated a simulated model to replicate the real-world situation for the next two decades. To evaluate the effect of interventions on regional HBV prevalence, three comparative experiments were conducted.
In this study, the regional hepatitis B epidemic in 20 years was predicted and compared with HBV prevalence under different interventions. Owing to the existing challenges in research methodology, this study combined HBV field research and simulation to provide a system dynamics model with close-to-real key data to improve prediction accuracy. The simulation also provided a prompt guidance for the field implementation.
In this work, the reduction mechanism of potassium chromate (K2CrO4) was investigated via in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. During the hydrogen reduction of K2CrO4, the formation of K3CrO4, KCrO2, and KxCrO2 were detected for the first time. The study discovered that K2CrO4 was firstly reduced to K3CrO4 and an amorphous Cr(III) intermediate product at low temperature (400–500 °C). Moreover, the K3CrO4 was the only crystalline material at this stage. As the temperature increased, a stabilized amorphous CrOOH was formed. At a high temperature (550–700 °C), KCrO2 was generated. Interestingly, a portion of KCrO2 was spontaneously decomposed during the hydrogen reduction, accompanying by the formation of K0.7CrO2. Finally, the results clearly illustrated the reduction mechanism of K2CrO4: K2CrO4 → K3CrO4 → amorphous intermediate → KCrO2.
To evaluate the effects of different anthropogenic activities on zooplankton and the pelagic ecosystem, we conducted seasonal cruises in 2010 to assess spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of Xiangshan Bay, a subtropical semi-enclosed bay in China. The evaluation included five different areas: a kelp farm, an oyster farm, a fish farm, the thermal discharge area of a power plant, and an artificial reef, and we aimed to identify whether anthropogenic activities dominated spatial variation in the mesozooplankton communities. The results demonstrated clear spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of the studied areas, dominantly driven by natural hydrographic properties, except in the area near the thermal discharge outlet of the power station. In the outlet area, thermal shock caused by the discharge influenced the mesozooplankton community by decreasing abundance and biomass throughout the four seasons, even causing a shift in the dominant species near the outlet during summer from Acartia pacifica to eurythermal and warm water taxa. Unique features of the mesozooplankton community in the oyster farm may be due to the combined effects of oyster culture and the natural environment in the branch harbour. However, kelp and fish culture, and the construction of an artificial reef did not exert any obvious influence on the mesozooplankton communities up to 2010, probably because of the small scale of the aquaculture and a time lag in the rehabilitation effects of the artificial reef. Thus, our results suggested that the dominant factors influencing spatial variations of mesozooplankton communities in Xiangshan Bay were still the natural hydrographic properties, but the thermal discharge was an anthropogenic activity that changed the pelagic ecosystem, and should be supervised.
Findings from observational studies have suggested a possible relation between Ca and breast cancer risk. However, the results of these studies are inconclusive, and the dose–response relationship between Ca intake and risk of breast cancer remains to be determined. A meta-analysis of prospective studies was conducted to address these issues. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies concerning the association between Ca intake and breast cancer up to March 2016. The summary relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI were calculated with a random-effects model. The final analysis included eleven prospective cohort studies involving 26 606 cases and 872 895 participants. The overall RR of breast cancer for high v. low intake of Ca was 0·92 (95 % CI 0·85, 0·99), with moderate heterogeneity (P=0·026, I2=44·2 %). In the subgroup analysis, the inverse association appeared stronger for premenopausal breast cancer (RR 0·75; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·96) than for postmenopausal breast cancer (RR 0·94; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·01). Dose–response analysis revealed that each 300 mg/d increase in Ca intake was associated with 2 % (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·96, 0·99), 8 % (RR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·98) and 2 % (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99) reduction in the risk of total, premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer, respectively. Our findings suggest an inverse dose–response association between Ca intake and risk of breast cancer.
A noncentrosymmetric aluminum borate crystal, Al5BO9, was obtained via high-temperature solution method. Considering the structure diversities of Al5BO9, the single crystal structure was cautiously redetermined before the investigation. The fundamental building blocks of the structure are BO3 triangles, AlO4 tetrahedra, and AlO6 octahedra. Since Al5BO9 only consists of strong covalent B–O and Al–O bonds, it is worth investigating the structure–optical property relationship thoroughly, especially the linear and nonlinear optical properties. To gain further insight into the origin of the nonlinear optical response of Al5BO9, the electronic structure calculations, second harmonic generation (SHG)-weighted electron density, and dipole moment of polyhedra were analyzed in detail. All evidences deduced from calculated results indicate that the SHG contribution from the Al–O polyhedra is more pronounced than that of the BO3 group in Al5BO9, which is anticipated to open a window for the search and design of new inorganic materials.
Our aim is to screen miRNAs and genes related to tetralogy of Fallot and construct a co-expression network based on integrating miRNA and gene microarrays. We downloaded the gene expression profile GSE35490 (miRNA) and GSE35776 (mRNA) of tetralogy of Fallot from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which includes eight normal and 15 disease samples from infants, and screened differentially expressed miRNAs and genes between normal and disease samples (cut-off: p < 0.05; FDR < 0.05; and log FC > 2 or log FC < −2); in addition, we downloaded human miRNA and their targets, which were collected in the miRNA targets prediction database TargetScan, and selected ones that also appeared in our differentially expressed miRNAs and their predicted targets (score >0.9) and then made a relationship of diff_miRNAs and diff_genes of our results. Finally, we uploaded all the diff_target genes into String, constructed a co-expression network regulated by diff_miRNAs, and performed functional analysis with the software DAVID. Comparing normal and disease lesion tissue, we got 32 and 875 differentially expressed miRNAs and genes, respectively, and found hsa-miR-124 with 34 diff_target genes and hsa-miR-138 with two diff_target genes. Then we constructed a co-expression network that contains 231 pairs of genes. Genes in the network were enriched into 14 function clusters, and the most significant one is protein localisation. We screened the tetralogy of Fallot-related hsa-miR-124 and hsa-miR-138 with their direct and indirect differentially expressed target genes, and found that protein localisation is the significant cause affecting tetralogy of Fallot. Our approach may provide the groundwork for a new therapy approach to treating tetralogy of Fallot.
The axial shift and the spin Hamiltonian parameters (zero-field splitting D, g factors and hyperfine structure constants) for Cr+ in BeO are theoretically studied in this work. The calculations are carried out by using the perturbation formulas of these parameters for a 3d5 ion under trigonally distorted tetrahedra based on the cluster approach containing both the crystal-field and charge transfer contributions. It is found that the impurity Cr+ may not occupy exactly the host Be2+ site but experience a small outward shift 0.01 Å away from the ligand triangle along the C3 axis. The above impurity axial shift leads to much smaller trigonal distortion than the host Be2+ site in BeO. The theoretical spin Hamiltonian parameters based on the above impurity axial shift are in good agreement with the observed values.
Vanadium-beard bone coal is one of important vanadium resources in China. to extract vanadium tailings from Stone coal is prduced after extracted vanadium from stone coal through the roasting, leaching and other processes. About 120-150 tons of tailings will be produced in extracting 1 ton of vanadium pentoxide. A lot of tailings that are willfully piled up have caused serious environmental pollution and wasting of resources; it is therefore necessary to realize its resource utilization. This study increases the activity of vanadium tailings by means of alkali fusion, and then uses different alkali activators to react with vanadium tailings so that geopolymer with high value added is produced. Sample of geopolymer is acquired from mixture containing vanadium tailings, alkali activators, water and a little sodium aluminate through compression-molding process under 20MPa pressure. After cured in room temperature for three days, the maximum compressive strength of the sample can reach 36.2MPa. XRD analysis indicates: quartz, the major crystal phase in vanadium tailings is decomposed and the activity of vanadium tailings is heightened. FTIR and SEM analyses show: structural change having important impact on the mechanical strength of geopolymer occurred during the process of vanadium tailings generating geopolymer.
The statistical analysis of heating effect and the cross-correlation analysis of both electron temperature and loop voltage have been done during electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). The behavior of runaway electrons in the flat-top phase during ECRH are analyzed using experimental data. It is shown that the runaway population is indeed suppressed or even quenched when the toroidal electric field ET is reduced below the threshold electric field Eth by high-power and long-duration ECRH. The physical mechanism of runaway suppression is explored by the resonant interaction between the electron cyclotron waves and the energetic runaway electrons.
The population doubling number (70–80 times) of human fetal bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) is about two times higher than that (30–40 times) of adult BMMSCs, and their differentiation capacity is superior to that of their adult counterparts. In this study, BMMSCs were isolated from long bones of 2- to 3-month-old human abortuses by rinsing and selectively culturing whole marrow cells. Basic medium and serum concentration were optimized and growth curves plotted, both by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-di-phenyltetrazolium bromide] reduction assay. Isolated cells were identified by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry for their antigen markers. The biosafety of isolated cells was evaluated by karyotype analysis and a tumour-forming experiment. The results indicated that lengthwise scissoring of fetal long bones and rinsing of their marrow cells was practical and useful for recovery of BMMSCs from the investigated human abortuses. In this experiment, α-MEM (minimum essential medium, alpha medium)+20% FCS (fetal calf serum) was the best for in vitro culture of BMMSCs. The third-passage BMMSCs expressed Oct4, SSEA3 and SSEA4 besides the surface markers of their adult counterparts. The population doubling time of the BMMSCs of passage 6, 12 and 24 were 34, 36 and 40 h, respectively. Cells in all passages showed a diploid karyotype and formed no tumours in nude mice. The BMMSCs used in this study proved to be biologically safe and ideal seed cells for research on human tissue engineering and regeneration medicine.
Frugivorous bats are important seed dispersers for many plant species (Cox et al. 1991, Fleming & Heithaus 1981, Hodgkison et al. 2003a, McConkey & Drake 2006, Nyhagen et al. 2005, Utzurrum 1995). They regularly consume figs in the wild (Fujita & Tuttle 1991, Kalko et al. 1996, Shilton et al. 1999). Various species of pteropodid bats have been reported foraging on the fruits of more than 30 fig species in tropical and subtropical Asia, Africa and Australia (Bhat 1994, Fujita & Tuttle 1991, Marshall & McWilliam 1982, Thomas 1984). Food transit times in frugivorous bats are relatively rapid; generally less than 30 min (Laska 1990, Tedman & Hall 1985). Several studies have demonstrated that seed germination was either enhanced or unaffected after passage through the digestive tract of bats (Figueiredo & Perin 1995, Fleming & Heithaus 1981, Lieberman & Lieberman 1986).
Radar, aerial netting and ground sampling were used to study the autumn migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in Jiangsu Province in east central China. Emigration of macropterous adults increased from late August until late September as the main rice crop matured and was harvested. In early and mid September, the resulting windborne migrations carried the planthoppers mainly towards the west, although the migration directions ranged (within the western sector) from south to north. By late September, however, displacements were predominantly to the south-west on the then prevailing north-east monsoon winds: migration was particularly rapid when the north-easterlies were reinforced by typhoons. Although in late September such movements to more southerly latitudes are essential for the survival of the planthoppers' progeny, we found no definite evidence for preferential emigration on winds blowing towards the south. There were, however, indications that when winds towards the north occurred, the duration of migratory flight was curtailed. Irrespective of any possible preference for migration on northerlies, a large proportion of the N. lugens population would normally be carried in an adaptive southwards direction, because the advent of the north-east monsoon occurs at a time when the number of flight-ready planthoppers approaches its peak.
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