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High unemployment is a hallmark of psychotic illness. Individual placement and support (IPS) may be effective at assisting the vocational recoveries of young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP).
To examine the effectiveness of IPS at assisting young people with FEP to gain employment (Australian and Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000094370).
Young people with FEP (n = 146) who were interested in vocational recovery were randomised using computer-generated random permuted blocks on a 1:1 ratio to: (a) 6 months of IPS in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) or (b) TAU alone. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months (end of intervention), 12 months and 18 months post-baseline by research assistants who were masked to the treatment allocations.
At the end of the intervention the IPS group had a significantly higher rate of having been employed (71.2%) than the TAU group (48.0%), odds ratio 3.40 (95% CI 1.17–9.91, z = 2.25, P = 0.025). However, this difference was not seen at 12- and 18-month follow-up points. There was no difference at any time point on educational outcomes.
This is the largest trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of IPS in FEP. The IPS group achieved a very high employment rate during the 6 months of the intervention. However, the advantage of IPS was not maintained in the long term. This seems to be related more to an unusually high rate of employment being achieved in the control group rather than a gross reduction in employment among the IPS group.
The aim of this study was to determine potential risk factors for mortality in patients with nosocomial Stenotrophomonas maltophilia pneumonia.
A retrospective, single-center, observational study.
A 2400-bed tertiary teaching hospital in southern Taiwan.
Patients and Methods.
This retrospective study evaluated patients (age, at least 18 years) with nosocomial pneumonia (S. maltophilia isolated from respiratory culture) who were seen at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital over a 3-year period. A total of 406 patients (64% male, mean age ± standard deviation, 69.6 ± 14.93 years; mean duration of hospital stay ± standard deviation, 57.5 ± 39.47 days) were included.
Most index isolates (53.9%) were from the first sample cultured. Polymicrobial isolates were cultured from samples from 177 (43.6%) of the 406 study patients. The most common copathogen was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (53.11% of isolates). The all-cause hospital mortality rate was 42.6% (173 deaths among 406 patients). Survivors had a shorter time from admission to a positive index culture result than did nonsurvivors (26.1 vs 31.7 days; P = .04). Mortality was significantly higher among patients with malignancy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52–4.07; P < .001 ), renal disease (AOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.51–4.47; P = .001), intensive care unit stay (AOR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.1–2.7; P = .018), and inadequate initial empirical antibiotic therapy (AOR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.4–3.38; P = .001).
S. maltophilia pneumonia is associated with a high mortality rate and is commonly associated with concomitant polymicrobial colonization or infection. Underlying comorbidities and inadequate initial empirical antibiotic therapy substantially account for increased mortality rates.
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