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In this paper, we study divergence properties of the Fourier series on Cantor-type fractal measure, also called the mock Fourier series. We give a sufficient condition under which the mock Fourier series for doubling spectral measure is divergent on a set of strictly positive measure. In particular, there exists an example of the quarter Cantor measure whose mock Fourier sums are not almost everywhere convergent.
Several studies suggested a potential role of viral infection in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the association between herpes zoster and PD was not investigated well till now.
Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 13 083 patients aged ≥45 years with herpes zoster and 52 332 (1:4) age-/sex-matched controls were enrolled between 1998 and 2008 and followed to the end of 2011. Those who developed PD during the follow-up period were identified.
The Cox regression analysis with adjustment of demographic characteristics, health system utilization, and comorbidities demonstrated that patients with herpes zoster had an increased risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.43-2.28) of developing PD in later life compared to the control group. Sensitivity tests after excluding the first year (HR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.16-1.93) and first 2-year (HR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.10-1.88) observation periods showed consistent results.
Patients with herpes zoster were more likely to develop PD in later life compared to the controls. Additional studies are necessary for validating our results and to clarify the underlying pathophysiology between herpes zoster and PD.
Maternal one-carbon metabolism during pregnancy is crucial for fetal development and programming by DNA methylation. However, evidence on one-carbon biomarkers other than folate is lacking. We, therefore, investigated whether maternal plasma methyl donors, that is, choline, betaine and methionine, are associated with birth outcomes. Blood samples were obtained from 115 women during gestation (median 26·3 weeks, 90 % range 22·7–33·0 weeks). Plasma choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine were measured using HPLC-tandem MS. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma biomarkers and birth weight, birth length, the risk of small-for-gestational-age and large-for-gestational-age (LGA). Higher level of maternal betaine was associated with lower birth weight (–130·3 (95 % CI –244·8, –15·9) per 1 sd increment for log-transformed betaine). Higher maternal methionine was associated with lower risk of LGA, and adjusted OR, with 95 % CI for 1 sd increase in methionine concentration was 0·44 (95 % CI 0·21, 0·89). Stratified analyses according to infant sex or maternal plasma homocysteine status showed that reduction in birth weight in relation to maternal betaine was only limited to male infants or to who had higher maternal homocysteine status (≥5·1 µmol/l). Higher maternal betaine status was associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal methionine was inversely associated with LGA risk. These findings are needed to be replicated in future larger studies.
Accumulating evidence suggests that altered immunity contributes to the
development of major depressive disorder (MDD).
To examine whether complement factor H (CFH), a regulator of activation
of the alternative pathway of the complement cascade, confers
susceptibility to MDD.
Expression analyses were tested in 53 unmedicated people with MDD and 55
healthy controls. A two-stage genetic association analysis was performed
in 3323 Han Chinese with or without MDD. Potential associations between
CFH single nucleotide polymorphisms and age at MDD
onset were evaluated.
CFH levels were significantly lower in the MDD group at
both protein and mRNA levels (P = 0.009 and
P = 0.014 respectively). A regulatory variant in the
CFH gene, rs1061170, showed statistically significant
genotypic and allelic differences between the MDD and control groups
(genotypic P = 0.0005, allelic P =
0.0001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that age at onset of MDD
was significantly associated with the C allele of
rs1061170 (log rank statistic χ2 = 6.82, P =
0.009). The C-allele carriers had a younger age at onset
of MDD (22.2 years, s.d. = 4.0) than those without the C
allele (23.6 years, s.d. = 4.3).
CFH is likely to play an important role in the
development of MDD. rs1061170 has an important effect on age at onset of
MDD in Han Chinese and may therefore be related to early pathogenesis of
MDD, although further study is needed.
In this work, fluorescent Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) cells were developed as probes for imaging applications and to explore behaviorial interaction between B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A novel biological strategy of coupling intracellular biochemical reactions for controllable biosynthesis of CdSe quantum dots by living B. subtilis cells was demonstrated, through which highly luminant and photostable fluorescent B. subtilis cells were achieved with good uniformity. With the help of the obtained fluorescent B. subtilis cells probes, S. aureus cells responded to co-cultured B. subtilis and to aggregate. The degree of aggregation was calculated and nonlinearly fitted to a polynomial model. Systematic investigations of their interactions implied that B. subtilis cells inhibit the growth of neighboring S. aureus cells, and this inhibition was affected by both the growth stage and the amount of surrounding B. subtilis cells. Compared to traditional methods of studying bacterial interaction between two species, such as solid culture medium colony observation and imaging mass spectrometry detection, the procedures were more simple, vivid, and photostable due to the efficient fluorescence intralabeling with less influence on the cells’ surface, which might provide a new paradigm for future visualization of microbial behavior.
To assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the quantitative FFQ used in the Tzu Chi Health Study (TCHS).
The reproducibility was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with the 2-year follow-up FFQ. The validity was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with 3 d dietary records and biomarkers (serum folate and vitamin B12). Median comparison, cross-classification and Spearman correlation with and without energy adjustment and deattenuation for day-to-day variation were assessed.
TCHS is a prospective cohort containing a high proportion of true vegetarians and part-time vegetarians (regularly consuming a vegetarian diet without completely avoiding meat).
Subsets of 103, seventy-eight and 1528 TCHS participants were included in the reproducibility, dietary record-validity and biomarker-validity studies, respectively.
Correlations assessing the reproducibility for repeat administrations of the FFQ were in the range of 0·46–0·65 for macronutrients and 0·35–0·67 for micronutrients; the average same quartile agreement was 40%. The correlation between FFQ and biomarkers was 0·41 for both vitamin B12 and folate. Moderate to good correlations between the baseline FFQ and dietary records were found for energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated and monounsaturated fat, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin A, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe and Zn (average crude correlation: 0·47 (range: 0·37–0·66); average energy-adjusted correlation: 0·43 (range: 0·38–0·55); average energy-adjusted deattenuated correlation: 0·50 (range: 0·44–0·66)) with same quartile agreement rate of 39% (range: 35–45%), while misclassification to the extreme quartile was rare (average: 4% (range: 0–6%)).
The FFQ is a reliable and valid tool to rank relative intake of major nutrients for TCHS participants.
Metals possess the highest conductivity among all room-temperature materials; however, ultrathin metal films demonstrate decent optical transparency but poor sheet conductance due to electron scattering from the surface and grain boundaries. This article discusses engineered metal nanostructures in the form of nanogrids, nanowires, or continuous nanofibers as efficient transparent and conductive electrodes. Metal nanogrids are discussed, as they represent an excellent platform for understanding the fundamental science. Progress toward low-cost, nano-ink-based printed silver nanowire electrodes, including silver nanowire synthesis, film fabrication, wire-wire junction resistance, optoelectronic properties, and stability, are also discussed. Another important factor for low-cost application is to use earth-abundant materials. Copper-based nanowires and nanofibers are discussed in this context. Examples of device integrations of these materials are also given. Such metal nanostructure-based transparent electrodes are particularly attractive for solar cell applications.
The outcome of Plasmodium yoelii 17XL-infected BALB/c and DBA/2 mice, ranging from death to spontaneous cure, respectively, depends largely on the establishment of effective pro-inflammatory type 1 responses during the early stages of infection and associates with CD4+CD25+Foxp3+regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here, effects of Tregs were analysed on early P. yoelii 17XL infection in BALB/c and DBA/2 mice. In vivo depletion of Tregs significantly reversed the inhibited establishment of effective pro-inflammatory type 1 responses in BALB/c mice, indicating that this cell population contributed to the suppression of T-cell function in malaria. Moreover, the proportion and absolute numbers of IL-10-secreting Tregs in BALB/c mice were significantly higher than that found in DBA/2 mice by intracytoplasmic staining, and IL-10 production was correlated with the Tregs population. In addition, in vivo Tregs depletion decreased the production of IL-10 and the apoptosis of CD4+ T cells. Consistently, IL-10R blockade also had the same effect as that of Tregs depletion in P. yoelii 17XL-infected BALB/c mice. Our data demonstrate that Tregs perhaps have an important role in regulating pro-inflammatory type 1 responses in an IL-10-dependent manner and induce CD4+ T cell apoptosis during the early stage of P. yoelii 17XL infection.
The plant expression vectors pCAMBIA1301PMI and pBIPMI were constructed by substituting the Escherichia coli phosphomannose-isomerase (PMI) gene for the hpt gene of pCAMBIA1301 and gus gene of pBI121, respectively. Epicotyl explants of the Xuegan sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105- pCAMBIA1301PMI and EHA105-pBIPMI and subsequently selected in a medium supplemented with a combination of 25 g/l mannose and 5 g/l sucrose as the carbon source. The transformation efficiency rate was 27.7% when transformed by pCAMBIA1301PMI and 12.7% by pBIPMI. Genetic transformation was confirmed by chlorophenol red assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A new method for obtaining transgenic Xuegan sweet orange plants was developed using the PMI/mannose selection system.
The ZnO thin film was successfully deposited on a glass substrate at RT by a RF reactive magnetron sputtering method. Structural, chemical, optical, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties are measured by using a surface profilometer, an x-ray diffractometry (XRD), an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a UV-VIS spectrophotometer, and a contact angle system, respectively. Results show that the deposition rate decreases with increasing O2/(Ar+O2) ratio. Otherwise, the best stoichiometric and quality of ZnO thin film was observed at 0.30 of O2/(Ar+O2) ratio by the smallest FWHM and the strong O-Zn bonds. Regardless of O2/(Ar+O2) ratio effect or thickness effect, high transmittance (> 86%) in the visible region is observed, while the UV-shielding characteristics depend upon both the magnitude of film thickness. The film thickness plays a more prominent role in controlling optical properties, especially in the UV-shielding characteristics, than the O2/(Ar+O2) ratio. However, the hydrophobic characteristics can be obtained when the glass coating with ZnO thin films. In general, with properly coated ZnO thin film, we can obtain a glass substrate which is highly transparent in the visible region, has good UV-shielding characteristics, and possesses highly hydrophobic characteristics (self-clean capability), which is highly suitable for applications in the glass industries.
We investigated a cluster of postoperative febrile episodes and episodes of Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia in obstetrics and gynecology wards after an electrical blackout and loss of the water supply. The use of patient-controlled analgesia was the only independent risk factor associated with postoperative fever, and A. baumannii isolates recovered from the blood of patients who had received patient-controlled analgesia were genetically related to an isolate recovered from the diluted morphine solution used for this procedure. After inappropriate preparation of the morphine solution was identified and stopped, the outbreak ended.
A high performance of wavelength 870nm resonant cavity LED (RCLED) was fabricated. The high performance of InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) were employed to achieve the high transmission rate. Two devices A and B were fabricated in this paper. Device A has an offset of 10nm between active region gain and resonant gain, and device B without it. Due to the wavelength shift of active region gain is faster than that of DBR's resonant gain at higher temperature. Device A shows the better temperature performances than device B. A cutoff frequency of 60MHz, a low forward voltage of 1.6V, a output power of 1mW at 10mA and a output power temperature variation (ΔP/ΔT) of –0.02dBm/ °C with chip dimensions of 220um × 220um and 85um diameter emitting window are obtained.
An organothermal reduction process has been successfully developed for synthesis of nanocrystalline Ni2P in benzene at 140 °C. An x-ray powder diffraction pattern (XRD) indicated that the product was pure hexagonal Ni2P phase with a cell constants a =0.5866 and c = 0.3377 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the average particle size of the powders was 40 nm with a circular-shaped flake morphology.
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