Previous studies have identified numerous factors that affect incident-reporting behavior. However, few studies have applied an individual psychology perspective to identify and examine the factors affecting the intention of nursing staff to report incidents. We integrate the theory of planned behavior, organizational behavior, psychological behavior, and social exchange theory to identify which factors affect the intentions of nursing staff to report incidents. Samples were collected from nursing staff at 40 regional or larger hospitals for model verification. The results of this study show that psychological safety, attitude toward reporting incidents, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control correlate positively with the intention to report incidents. The perceived cost and perceived benefit of incident reporting directly affects the attitude toward incident-reporting behavior, and self-efficacy influences perceived behavioral control. Furthermore, subjective norms and the perceived benefits of incident reporting mediate the effect of psychological safety on attitude toward incident-reporting behavior.