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To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
170 patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI-S), Global Assessment Function (GAF), and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-weeks, 8-weeks and 3-monthsfollow-up.
At 4-weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5%vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36-0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8-weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4-weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32-0.48) . At 3-months follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates (OR=2.12, 95% CI 1.02-4.42, p=0.04); and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27-6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
Little is known about long-term employment outcomes for patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum (FES) disorders who received early intervention services.
We compared the 10-year employment trajectory of patients with FES who received early intervention services with those who received standard care. Factors differentiating the employment trajectories were explored.
Patients with FES (N = 145) who received early intervention services in Hong Kong between 1 July 2001 and 30 June 2002 were matched with those who entered standard care 1 year previously. We used hierarchical clustering analysis to explore the 10-year employment clusters for both groups. We used the mixed model test to compare cluster memberships and piecewise regression analysis to compare the employment trajectories of the two groups.
There were significantly more patients who received the early intervention service in the good employment cluster (early intervention: N = 98 [67.6%]; standard care: N = 76 [52.4%]; P = 0.009). In the poor employment cluster, there was a significant difference in the longitudinal pattern between early intervention and standard care for years 1–5 (P < 0.0001). The number of relapses during the first 3 years, months of full-time employment during the first year and years of education were significant in differentiating the clusters of the early intervention group.
Results suggest there was an overall long-term benefit of early intervention services on employment. However, the benefit was not sustained for all patients. Personalisation of the duration of the early intervention service with a focus on relapse prevention and early vocational reintegration should be considered for service enhancement.
Declaration of interests
No relevant conflicts of interests reported by C.L.M.H., Y.N.S., P.S., H.H.P. and K.K.Y. S.K.W.C., W.C.C. and E.H.M.L. report that they are members of the working group of the Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis (EASY) programme of the Hospital Authority in Hong Kong. E.Y.H.C. is the convener of the working group of the EASY programme of the Hospital Authority in Hong Kong.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
Interactions of fluvial and eolian processes are prominent in dryland environments and can significantly change Earth surface morphology. Here, we report on sediment records of eolian and fluvial interactions since the last glacial period, in the semiarid area of northwest China, at the limit of the Southeast Asian monsoon. Sediment sequences of last glacial and Holocene terraces of the Yellow River are composed of channel gravels, overlain by flood sands, eolian dunes, and flood loams. These sequences, dated by optically stimulated luminescence, record interlinks between fluvial and eolian processes and their response to climate change. Sedimentologic structures and grain-size analysis show flood loams, consisting of windblown sediment, deposited from floodwater suspended sediment. The gravel and sand were deposited during cold periods. During transitions from cold to warm phases, the river incised, and dunes were formed by deflation of channel and floodplain deposits (>70 and 21–16 ka). Dunes also formed at ~0.8 ka, probably after human intervention. After dune formation, flood loam covered dunes without erosion during peak discharges at the beginning of the subsequent warm period. The fluctuations of the Southeast Asian monsoon as a moisture-transporting agent have perhaps been the driving force for interactions between fluvial and eolian processes in this semiarid environment.
Two new species of egg parasitoids, Oobius saimaensis Yao and Mottern new species and Oobius fleischeri Yao and Duan new species (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are described from eggs of Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger, 1925 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Agrilus fleischeri is a phloem-feeding woodborer of poplar (Populus Linnaeus; Salicaceae) in northeastern China. These two species can be distinguished morphologically as O. fleischeri has five tarsomeres and O. saimaensis has four tarsomeres. Although O. saimaensis is morphologically similar to its sympatric congener O. agrili Zhang and Hang, 2005, an important natural enemy of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888, molecular phylogenetics and morphological data indicate that they are distinct species. Phylogenetic relationships among the new species and other closely related species are also inferred by using DNA sequence data from several ribosomal and mitochondrial genes. In addition, we expand the known distribution of Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan, 2016 to include South Korea.
Nitrogen is an essential element for biological activity, and nitrogen isotopic compositions of geological samples record information about both marine biological processes and environmental evolution. However, only a few studies of N isotopes in the early Cambrian have been published. In this study, we analysed nitrogen isotopic compositions, as well as trace elements and sulphur isotopic compositions of cherts, black shales, carbonaceous shales and argillaceous carbonates from the Daotuo drill core in Songtao County, NE Guizhou Province, China, to reconstruct the marine redox environment of both deep and surface seawater in the study area of the Yangtze shelf margin in the early Cambrian. The Mo–U covariation pattern of the studied samples indicates that the Yangtze shelf margin area was weakly restricted and connected to the open ocean through shallow water flows. Mo and U concentrations, δ15Nbulk and δ34Spy values of the studied samples from the Yangtze shelf margin area suggest ferruginous but not sulphidic seawater and low marine sulphate concentration (relatively deep chemocline) in the Cambrian Fortunian and early Stage 2; sulphidic conditions (shallow chemocline and anoxic photic zone) in the upper Cambrian Stage 2 and lower Stage 3; and the depression of sulphidic seawater in the middle and upper Cambrian Stage 3. Furthermore, the decreasing δ15N values indicate shrinking of the marine nitrate reservoir during the middle and upper Stage 3, which reflects a falling oxygenation level in this period. The environmental evolution was probably controlled by the changing biological activity through its feedback on the local marine environment.
In traditional antenna design, metal components are not placed in the central part of the antenna as they change the characteristics of near field radiation. However, we show that placing a metal ring in the centre of the strip lines, which connect the ends of folded high-frequency dipoles, does not damage the performance of the feed. Instead it significantly improves the voltage standing wave ratio of the feed whilst other performance indicators are not compromised. Thus, our findings show an excellent way of improving the wide band feed. Based on this foundation, a new circularly polarised feed for operation between 0.4 to 2 GHz is introduced for the Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph in this paper. The issue of a feed impedance matching network is investigated. By optimising the impedance matching, the performance of the feed is enhanced with respect to the previous realisations of the Eleven feed. The simulation and experimental results show that the gain of the feed is about 10 dBi, and the VSWR is less than 2:1. In addition, the feed has a low axial ratio, fixed phase centre location, and constant beam width in the range of 0.4 to 2 GHz.
Due to the existence of invariant tori, chaotic sea and hyperbolic structures in higher dimensional phase space of a volume-preserving map, the diffusion route of chaotic orbits will be complicated. The velocity of diffusion will be very slow if the orbits are near an invariant torus. In order to realize this complicated diffusion phenomenon, in this paper we study the diffusion characters in the different regions, i.e., chaotic, hyperbolic and invariant tori’s regions. We find that for the three different regions, the diffusion velocities are different. The diffusion velocity in the vicinity of an invariant torus is the slowest one.
Both physical activity (PA) and diet are important contributors to health and well-being; however, there is limited information on the association of these behaviours and whether observed associations differ by weight. The present study aimed to evaluate whether nutrient intake is associated with PA and if this association varies by weight in young adults.
Cross-sectional study to analyse the association between PA and nutrient intake.
Participants were stratified as normal weight (18·5 kg/m2 <BMI <25·0 kg/m2) and overweight/obese (BMI≥25·0 kg/m2). PA level (PAL) was calculated (PAL=total daily energy expenditure/RMR) and used to stratify groups (PAL<1·6, 1·6≤PAL<1·9, PAL≥1·9).
Adults (n 407; age 27·6 (sd 3·8) years, 48 % male), with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m2, having at least two 24 h diet recalls and at least 5 d (including two weekend days) of valid, objectively measured PA data were included in the analysis.
In normal-weight participants, higher PAL was associated with higher intakes of minerals (except Ca, Fe and Zn), B-vitamins and choline (P for trend <0·05). In the overweight/obese group, higher PAL was associated with higher intakes of fibre, K, Na and Cu (P for trend <0·05). These differences, however, were no longer significant after additionally controlling for total energy intake.
More active young adults have higher intakes of essential micronutrients. The benefits of PA may be predominantly due to a higher overall food intake while maintaining energy balance rather than a healthier diet.
In this work, fluorescent Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) cells were developed as probes for imaging applications and to explore behaviorial interaction between B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A novel biological strategy of coupling intracellular biochemical reactions for controllable biosynthesis of CdSe quantum dots by living B. subtilis cells was demonstrated, through which highly luminant and photostable fluorescent B. subtilis cells were achieved with good uniformity. With the help of the obtained fluorescent B. subtilis cells probes, S. aureus cells responded to co-cultured B. subtilis and to aggregate. The degree of aggregation was calculated and nonlinearly fitted to a polynomial model. Systematic investigations of their interactions implied that B. subtilis cells inhibit the growth of neighboring S. aureus cells, and this inhibition was affected by both the growth stage and the amount of surrounding B. subtilis cells. Compared to traditional methods of studying bacterial interaction between two species, such as solid culture medium colony observation and imaging mass spectrometry detection, the procedures were more simple, vivid, and photostable due to the efficient fluorescence intralabeling with less influence on the cells’ surface, which might provide a new paradigm for future visualization of microbial behavior.
Being connected “anywhere anytime” has become a way of life for much of the world's population. Thanks to major technological advances in internet, wireless communication, video technology, silicon manufacturing, etc., our mobile devices have become not only faster and more powerful, but also smaller and sleeker. With the popularity of rich media on the rise, the no. 1 data traffic over the mobile network is attributed to video. That is the reason why we depict the Freeman Dyson's book title “From Eros to Gaia.” Equipped with rich media capabilities, our mobile devices enable a completely different storytelling experience unlike anything the human race has experienced before. In this paper, we review the latest technological evolutions in the wireless space and in the video space, namely long-term evolution and high-efficiency video coding, respectively. We then discuss how these advanced technologies impact our way of life at present and in years to come.
Introduction: The mortality of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its associated risk factors among clinically definite PD patients in China has been rarely investigated. Our study aimed to identify the mortality rates and predictors of death in PD patients in China. Methods: 157 consecutive, clinically definite PD patients from the urban area of Shanghai were recruited from a central hospital based movement disorder clinic in 2006. All patients were regularly followed up at the clinic until December 31, 2011, or death. Mortality and associations with baseline demographics, health and medical factors were then determined within the cohort. Results: After 5 years, 11(7%) patients had died. The standardised mortality ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.07, P=0.104). The main causes of death were pneumonia (54.5%, 6/11) and digestive disorders (18.2%, 2/11), respectively. Age at onset, independent living, the mini mental state examination score, the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale score and the Epworth sleepiness scale score at baseline were statistically significantly different between the survival group and the deceased group (P<0.05). Across all participants, risk factors for death included low mini mental state examination score, and high Epworth sleepiness scale score according to a binary variable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: This study confirms the similar survival of patients with PD to the control population up to a follow-up of 5 years. Interventions tailored to potential risk factors associated with death may offer further benefits.
The Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics (ACAP) co-ordinates the activities of the six Australian research institutions and a group of industrial partners in the Australia-US Institute for Advanced Photovoltaics (AUSIAPV) to develop the next generations of photovoltaic device technology and to provide a pipeline of opportunities for performance increase and cost reduction. AUSIAPV links ACAP with US-based partners. These national and international research collaborations provide a pathway for highly visible, structured photovoltaic research collaboration between Australian and US researchers, institutes and agencies with significant joint programs based on the clear synergies between the participating organizations. The research program is organized in five collaborative Program Packages (PPs). PP1 deals with silicon wafer-based cells, focusing on three main areas: cells from solar grade silicon, rear contact and silicon-based tandem cells. PP2 involves research into a range of organic solar cells, organic/inorganic hybrid cells, "earth abundant" thin-film materials and "third generation" approaches. PP3 is concerned with optics and characterization. PP4 will deliver a substantiated methodology for assessing manufacturing costs of the different technologies and PP5 involves education, training and outreach. The main research topics, results and plans for the future are presented.
The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph is an aperture-synthesis telescope observing the Sun in ultra wide bandwidth on the ground. It contains two arrays Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph-I and Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph-II from 0.4 to 15 GHz. In order to obtain ultra wide-band performance, the cascaded folded dipoles are used in this feed. At the same time, in order to get circularly polarised signals coming from the Sun, a wide-band 90° hybrid is added in the output ports of the feed. This feed has characteristics of about 10 dBi gain, less than 1.5 voltage standing wave ratio. It also has characteristics with low axial ratio, fixed phase centre location, and constant beam width in operating frequencies. Through cross-correlating all combinations of two orthogonal polarisations at each antenna, the polarisation state of the waves is measured and give a differential instrumental delay between two data channels. The relationship between the own polarisation degree of the Sun and the observed polarisation degree is also measured for cross-polarised delay in observing the Sun in this paper.
Recent evidence shows that excess nicotinamide can cause epigenetic changes in developing rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal nicotinamide supplementation on the fetus. Female rats were randomised into four groups fed a standard chow diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1 g/kg of nicotinamide (low-dose group), 4 g/kg of nicotinamide (high-dose group) or 4 g/kg of nicotinamide plus 2 g/kg of betaine (betaine group) for 14–16 d before mating and throughout the study. Fetal tissue samples were collected on the 20th day of pregnancy. Compared with the control group, the high-dose group had a higher fetal death rate, and the average fetal body weight was higher in the low-dose group but lower in the high-dose group. Nicotinamide supplementation led to a decrease in placental and fetal hepatic genomic DNA methylation and genomic uracil contents (a factor modifying DNA for diversity) in the placenta and fetal liver and brain, which could be completely or partially prevented by betaine. Moreover, nicotinamide supplementation induced tissue-specific alterations in the mRNA expression of the genes encoding nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, DNA methyltransferase 1, catalase and tumour protein p53 in the placenta and fetal liver. High-dose nicotinamide supplementation increased fetal hepatic α-fetoprotein mRNA level, which was prevented by betaine supplementation. It is concluded that maternal nicotinamide supplementation can induce changes in fetal epigenetic modification and DNA base composition. The present study raises the concern that maternal nicotinamide supplementation may play a role in the development of epigenetic-related diseases in the offspring.
The goal of machining scheme selection (MSS) is to select the most appropriate machining scheme for a previously designed part, for which the decision maker must take several aspects into consideration. Because many of these aspects may be conflicting, such as time, cost, quality, profit, resource utilization, and so on, the problem is rendered as a multiobjective one. Consequently, we consider a multiobjective optimization problem of MSS in this study, where production profit and machining quality are to be maximized while production cost and production time must be minimized, simultaneously. This paper presents a new discrete method for particle swarm optimization, which can be widely applied in MSS to find out the set of Pareto-optimal solutions for multiobjective optimization. To deal with multiple objectives and enable the decision maker to make decisions according to different demands on each evaluation index, an analytic hierarchy process is implemented to determine the weight value of evaluation indices. Case study is included to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the hybrid algorithm. It is shown from the case study that the multiobjective optimization model can simply, effectively, and objectively select the optimal machining scheme according to the different demands on evaluation indices.
The aim of the present study was to determine the potential long-term metabolic effects of early nutritional programming on carbohydrate utilisation in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). High-carbohydrate diets were fed to fish during four ontogenetic stages: from the first-feeding stage to the end of the yolk-sac larval stage; from the first-feeding stage to 2 d after yolk-sac exhaustion; after yolk-sac exhaustion for 3 or 5 d. The carbohydrate stimuli significantly increased the body weight of the first-feeding groups in the short term. The expression of genes was differentially regulated by the early dietary intervention. The high-carbohydrate diets resulted in decreased plasma glucose levels in the adult fish. The mRNA levels and enzyme activities of glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, α-amylase and sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 1 were up-regulated in the first-feeding groups. There was no significant change in the mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in any experimental group, and the activity of G6Pase enzyme in the FF-5 (first feeding to 2 d after yolk-sac exhaustion) group was significantly different from that of the other groups. The expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene in all the groups was significantly decreased. In the examined early programming range, growth performance was not affected. Taken together, data reported herein indicate that the period ranging from the polyculture to the external feeding stage is an important window for potential modification of the long-term physiological functions. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that it is possible to permanently modify carbohydrate digestion, transport and metabolism of adult zebrafish through early nutritional programming.
Porous Al2O3 ceramics were fabricated using a rapid gelation to fix the foam structure after mechanical foaming. The slurry was made with deionized water, Al2O3 powder, a water-soluble copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, and a surfactant. The resultant gel formed at room temperature in air. The influence of the surfactant (EMAL TD) content on gelling behavior, pore structure (porosity, cell size), shrinkage behavior, and compressive strength of the resultant porous Al2O3 ceramics was evaluated. Porous Al2O3 ceramics were sintered in only one step without debinding because of the low concentration of additives (≤0.5 wt%). The porous Al2O3 ceramics had porosities from 20 to 89% and cell sizes from 60 to 220 μm. The compressive strength was 75 MPa when the porosity was 60%.