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The effects of dietary vitamin D, calcium and dairy products intakes on colorectal cancer risk remain controversial. This study investigated the association between these dietary intakes and the risk of colorectal cancer in Guangdong, China. From July 2010 to December 2018, 2,380 patients with colorectal cancer and 2,389 sex- and age-matched controls were recruited. Dietary intake data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for various confounders. Higher dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes were associated with 43% and 52% reductions in colorectal cancer risk, with ORs of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.70) and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.61), respectively, for the highest quartile (vs. lowest quartile) intakes. A statistically significant inverse association was observed between the total dairy products intake and colorectal cancer risk, with an adjusted OR of 0.32 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.39) for the highest vs. the lowest tertile. Subjects who drank milk had a 48% lower risk of colorectal cancer than those who did not (OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.59). The inverse associations of dietary vitamin D, calcium, total dairy products and milk intakes with the risk of colorectal cancer were independent of sex and cancer site. Our study supports the protective effects of high dietary vitamin D, calcium and dairy products intakes against colorectal cancer in a Chinese population.
Compared with the general population, individuals with schizophrenia have a higher risk of periodontal disease, which can potentially reduce their life expectancy. However, evidence for the early development of periodontal disease in schizophrenia is scant. The current study investigated risk factors for periodontal disease in patients newly diagnosed with schizophrenia.
We identified a population-based cohort of patients in Taiwan with newly diagnosed schizophrenia who developed periodontal disease within 1 year of their schizophrenia diagnosis. Treatment with antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to medication type and duration, and the association between medication use and the treated periodontal disease was assessed through logistic regression.
Among 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2373 (65.7%) had an incidence of treated periodontal disease during the 1-year follow-up. Female sex (adjusted odds ratios [OR] 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.63); young age (adjusted OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98–0.99); a 2-year history of periodontal disease (adjusted OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.84–3.26); high income level (adjusted OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.64–3.06) and exposure to first-generation (adjusted OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.54–2.32) and secondary-generation (adjusted OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.11–1.58) antipsychotics, anticholinergics (adjusted OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.03–1.50) and antihypertensives (adjusted OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.64–2.23) were independent risk factors for periodontal disease. Hyposalivation – an adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) (adjusted OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.63–2.45), anticholinergics (adjusted OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.05–1.53) and antihypertensives (adjusted OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.63–2.22) – was associated with increased risk of periodontal disease. Therefore, hypersalivation due to FGA use (adjusted OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59–0.88) was considered a protective factor.
The current study highlights that early prevention of periodontal disease in individuals with schizophrenia is crucial. Along with paying more attention to the development of periodontal disease, assessing oral health regularly, helping with oral hygiene, and lowering consumption of sugary drinks and tobacco, emphasis should also be given by physicians to reduce the prescription of antipsychotics to the extent possible under efficacious pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia.
A bottom-feed omni-directional CP (circularly polarized) antenna array is proposed in this letter. The antenna array is composed of four elements (two printed ZPS (zero-phase-shift) line loops and two half-wavelength dipoles). The four elements are fed with the same phase and amplitude. The ZPS line loops provide the horizontal polarization while the dipoles provide the vertical polarization. Therefore, omni-directional circular polarization is formed in the far field. The feeding network consists of a 1–4 T-shaped power divider formed by parallel strip lines. In order to balance the amplitude of the feeding coaxial cable, the structure is used in the bottom to transfer parallel strip line to micro-strip line. Besides, the loops and the dipoles are placed on the different side of the network to guarantee the omni-directional radiation property. The measured impedance bandwidth of the fabricated antenna is 0.13 GHz (2.40–2.53 GHz) and the measured maximum CP gain at 2.45 GHz is 4.8 dBic.
Maternal one-carbon metabolism during pregnancy is crucial for fetal development and programming by DNA methylation. However, evidence on one-carbon biomarkers other than folate is lacking. We, therefore, investigated whether maternal plasma methyl donors, that is, choline, betaine and methionine, are associated with birth outcomes. Blood samples were obtained from 115 women during gestation (median 26·3 weeks, 90 % range 22·7–33·0 weeks). Plasma choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine were measured using HPLC-tandem MS. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma biomarkers and birth weight, birth length, the risk of small-for-gestational-age and large-for-gestational-age (LGA). Higher level of maternal betaine was associated with lower birth weight (–130·3 (95 % CI –244·8, –15·9) per 1 sd increment for log-transformed betaine). Higher maternal methionine was associated with lower risk of LGA, and adjusted OR, with 95 % CI for 1 sd increase in methionine concentration was 0·44 (95 % CI 0·21, 0·89). Stratified analyses according to infant sex or maternal plasma homocysteine status showed that reduction in birth weight in relation to maternal betaine was only limited to male infants or to who had higher maternal homocysteine status (≥5·1 µmol/l). Higher maternal betaine status was associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal methionine was inversely associated with LGA risk. These findings are needed to be replicated in future larger studies.
Population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs that use a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) are often faced with a noncompliance issue and its subsequent waiting time (WT) for those FIT positives complying with confirmatory diagnosis. We aimed to identify factors associated with both of the correlated problems in the same model.
A total of 294,469 subjects, either with positive FIT test results or having a family history, collected from 2004 to 2013 were enrolled for analysis. We applied a hurdle Poisson regression model to accommodate the hurdle of compliance and also its related WT for undergoing colonoscopy while assessing factors responsible for the mixture of the two outcomes.
The effect on compliance and WT varied with contextual factors, such as geographic areas, type of screening units, and level of urbanization. The hurdle score, representing the risk score in association with noncompliance, and the WT score, reflecting the rate of taking colonoscopy, were used to classify subjects into each of three groups representing the degree of compliance and the level of health awareness.
Our model was not only successfully applied to evaluating factors associated with the compliance and the WT distribution, but also developed into a useful assessment model for stratifying the risk and predicting whether and when screenees comply with the procedure of receiving confirmatory diagnosis given contextual factors and individual characteristics.
Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) have been researched extensively for solving traffic issues and for realising the concept of an intelligent transport system. A well-developed positioning system is critical for CAVs to achieve these aims. The system should provide high accuracy, mobility, continuity, flexibility and scalability. However, high-performance equipment is too expensive for the commercial use of CAVs; therefore, the use of a low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver to achieve real-time, high-accuracy and ubiquitous positioning performance will be a future trend. This research used RTKLIB software to develop a low-cost GNSS receiver positioning system and assessed the developed positioning system according to the requirements of CAV applications. Kinematic tests were conducted to evaluate the positioning performance of the low-cost receiver in a CAV driving environment based on the accuracy requirements of CAVs. The results showed that the low-cost receiver satisfied the “Where in Lane” accuracy level (0·5 m) and achieved a similar positioning performance in rural, interurban, urban and motorway areas.
Kawasaki disease is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children from developed countries. The Interleukin-6/ Interleukin-12 cytokine family has many members, including the paradoxical anti- and pro-inflammatory Interleukin-27. Recent studies have demonstrated that Interleukin-27 plays a role in immune diseases. Given this, we sought to evaluate the association between Interleukin-27 genetic polymorphisms and Kawasaki disease in Chinese children.
Methods and results
Interleukin-27 was genotyped in 100 Kawasaki disease children and 98 healthy children (controls), resulting in the direct sequencing of eight Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms: rs17855750, rs40837, rs26528, rs428253, rs4740, rs4905, rs153109, and rs181206). There were no significant differences in Interleukin-27 genotypes between Kawasaki disease and control groups. Of the eight Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms, there was a significant increase in the risk of Kawasaki disease with coronary arterial lesions in children with the rs17855750 (T>G), rs40837 (A>G), rs4740 (G>A), rs4905 (A>G), rs153109 (T>C), and rs26528 (A>G) Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms. This was particularly true for rs17855750 (T>G), which had a greater frequency in Kawasaki disease children with coronary arterial aneurysm.
These findings may be used as risk factors when assessing a child’s likelihood of developing Kawasaki disease, as well as for the development of future therapeutic treatments for Kawasaki disease.
Usually we think a X-ray source may be a compact(neutron) binary star on which the X-ray radiation might be generated by gravitational acceleration for the particles coming from the primary and going along magnetic field lines of the compact star to the poles. But, in the past, people don't consider well the problem of particle acceleration. It seems to be simplified for the situation only to consider the gravitation effect, because some electric-magnetic effect in a strong magnetic field could not be neglected. However, it is unreasonable to neglect the plasma turbulent waves in an electric-magnetic field, because strong enough turbulent waves such as Alfven waves, whistlers generated nearby the surface of neutron stars probably contribute energy to accelerate particles, which may be more important than gravitation sometimes. For a binary system with a neutron star if ion number density N > 1017 /cm3 in its surface atmosphere, the turbulent wavess will be stimulated that will accelerate the particles reaching a speed over 108cm/s. they strike the atmosphere of the compact star in the system, so that a shock wave is formed which turns part of kinetic energy to heat to form hot spots of about 108K to emit X-ray.
With gridlock, presidents increasingly rely on unilateral actions - means not requiring legislative statutes - which many view as tantamount to power. Using a variety of approaches, Chiou and Rothenberg show that this need not be the case as, under many conditions, the chief executive's employment of such tools is constrained. Rather, presidents contemplating issuing executive orders are often constrained by worries about challenging the legislature and the courts. Most notably, the ability of Congress to employ extra-statutory means, involving efforts by legislators and their parties that don't require passing a law, limit how presidents utilize their discretion. Additionally, political parties can influence presidential choices and actions both by restricting the ideological direction in which presidents can push policy via discretionary authority and by agenda-setting and disciplining members in the legislative process. Nor are all presidential actions equal, as the policy area involved and the importance of an action condition presidential power.