To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The current transient was studied on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for RF power amplifiers under different temperatures. The current transient measurements include two different approaches. One is to measure the current transient from off-state (without bias) to a quiescent point (Q-point). Different transient behaviors were observed while switching to different Q-points. Another one is to measure the current transient from different currents to the Q-point of VDS = 28 V and ID = 100 mA/mm. The different currents before switching to Q-point of VDS = 28 V and ID = 100 mA/mm show the different transient characteristics. Most of the current transient demonstrates temperature independence in this study.
Ubiquinone is a lipid antioxidant, and a novel liquid ubiquinol (a hydro-soluble, reduced form of coenzyme Q10) supplement was recently developed. The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of glucose, lipids and antioxidant capacity of type 2 diabetes patients after liquid ubiquinol supplementation. This study was designed as a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. In all, fifty participants were randomly assigned to a placebo (n 25) or liquid ubiquinol (100 mg/d, n 25) group, and the intervention lasted for 12 weeks. Plasma coenzyme Q10, glucose homoeostasis parameters, lipid profiles, oxidative stress and antioxidative enzyme activities were measured during the study. After 12 weeks of supplementation, glyco Hb (HbA1c) value was significantly decreased in the liquid ubiquinol group (P=0·03), and subjects in the liquid ubiquinol group had significantly lower anti-glycaemic medication effect scores (MES) compared with those in the placebo group (P=0·03). The catalase (P<0·01) and glutathione peroxidase (P=0·03) activities were increased significantly after supplementation. Plasma coenzyme Q10 was correlated with the insulin level (P=0·05), homoeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (P=0·07), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (P=0·03) and the anti-hyperglycaemic agents’ MES (P=0·03) after supplementation. Lipid profiles did not change after supplementation; however, the subjects in the placebo group had a significantly lower level of HDL-cholesterol after 12 weeks of intervention. In conclusion, oral intake of 100 mg/d liquid ubiquinol might benefit type 2 diabetes patients by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity levels, reducing HbA1c levels and maintaining HDL-cholesterol levels.
Since the 1950s, Taiwan and China have utilized foreign aid as an instrument of foreign policy. After Taiwan's forced withdrawal from the United Nations in 1971, diplomatic and aid-giving competition with China became more intense. As a result, Taiwan's and China's struggles to gain supporters have been reflected in foreign aid strategies. Taiwan's bid for the UN and the WHO, and the issue of diplomatic recognition empirically demonstrate the utilization of aid to obtain diplomatic support from recipient countries, and, frequently, any decisions are heavily influenced by the competition it experiences with China. Theoretically, this highlights an important relational framework for analyzing foreign aid decisions – particularly the management of foreign relations of small states or middle powers simultaneously influenced by greater powers and aid recipient states.
Using data from ICDF and related reports, we observe geographically concentrated patterns in the distribution of Taiwan's aid recipients from 1988 to 1997 – mostly in Latin America and Southeast Asia. In contrast to China's foreign aid which emphasizes infrastructural development, the spirit of Taiwan's economic development aid programs often took the form of technical cooperation. However, a high percentage of aid went to countries with diplomatic ties to Taiwan. With civil society development and increased international activities of Taiwanese NGOs in humanitarian relief and development projects after 2000, we find a new emerging set of geographical aid distribution patterns that expand beyond countries that recognize Taiwan. In addition, while the process of incorporating civil society into foreign aid work was initiated by the ICDF the following decade, Taiwanese NGOs have increasingly demonstrated autonomous international agendas, funding, and direction, as well as the formation of civil society alliances that work on common international development issues.
Previous studies have indicated that there is dopamine transporter (DAT) dysregulation and P300 abnormality in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, the correlations among the three have not been fully explored.
A total of 11 adults (9 males and 2 females) with ADHD and 11 age-, sex-, and education-level-matched controls were recruited. We explored differences in DAT availability using single-photon emission computed tomography and P300 wave of event-related potentials between the two groups. The correlation between DAT availability and P300 performance was also examined.
DAT availability in the basal ganglia, caudate nucleus, and putamen was significantly lower in the ADHD group. Adults with ADHD had lower auditory P300 amplitudes at the Pz and Cz sites, as well as longer Fz latency than controls. DAT availability was negatively correlated to P300 latency at Pz and Fz.
Adults with ADHD had both abnormal DAT availability and P300 amplitude, suggesting that ADHD is linked to dysfunction of the central dopaminergic system and poor cognitive processes related to response selection and execution.
Effective perioperative hand antisepsis is crucial for the safety of patients and medical staff in surgical rooms. The antimicrobial effectiveness of different antiseptic methods, including conventional hand scrubs and waterless hand rubs, has not been well evaluated.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the 3 antiseptic methods among surgical staff of Taipei Medical University—Shuang Ho Hospital. For each method used, a group of 80 participants was enrolled.
Surgical hand cleansing with conventional 10% povidone–iodine scrub, conventional 4% chlorhexidine scrub, or waterless hand rub (1% chlorhexidine gluconate and 61% ethyl alcohol).
Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were collected using the hand imprinting method before and after disinfection and after surgery. After surgical hand disinfection, the mean CFU counts of the conventional chlorhexidine (0.5±0.2, P<0.01) and waterless hand rub groups (1.4±0.7, P<0.05) were significantly lower than that of the conventional povidone group (4.3±1.3). No significant difference was observed in the mean CFU count among the groups after surgery. Similar results were obtained when preexisting differences before disinfection were considered in the analysis of covariance. Furthermore, multivariate regression indicated that the antiseptic method (P=.0036), but not other variables, predicted the mean CFU count.
Conventional chlorhexidine scrub and waterless hand rub were superior to a conventional povidone–iodine product in bacterial inhibition. We recommend using conventional chlorhexidine scrub as a standard method for perioperative hand antisepsis. Waterless hand rub may be used if the higher cost is affordable.
The term Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) has been widely used since the 1990s to refer to a wide range of computer technology that facilitates human communication through the Internet, and applied linguists are increasingly concerning themselves with the influence of computer networks on language use (Crystal, 2006; Hassan & Hashim, 2009; Lewin & Donner, 2002). In the English as a foreign language (EFL) context, text-based CMC has been widely adopted as a learning tool as it provides learners with authentic input, as well as opportunities to communicate with native speakers of English and to participate in the target social and cultural contexts (Liaw & Master, 2010; Lin, 2015; Sasaki, 2010).
This work proposes a query-by-singing (QBS) content-based music retrieval (CBMR) system that uses Approximate Karbunen–Loeve transform for noise reduction. The proposed QBS-CBMR system uses a music clip as a search key. First, a 51-dimensional matrix containing 39-Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) features and 12-Chroma features are extracted from an input music clip. Next, adapted symbolic aggregate approximation (adapted SAX) is used to transform each dimension of features into a symbolic sequence. Each symbolic sequence corresponding to each dimension of MFCCs is then converted into a structure called advanced fast pattern index (AFPI) tree. The similarity between the query music clip and the songs in the database is evaluated by calculating a partial score for each AFPI tree. The final score is obtained by calculating the weighted sum of all partial scores, where the weighting of each partial score is determined by its entropy. Experimental results show that the proposed music retrieval system performs robustly and accurately with the entropy weighting mechanism.
To investigate the reciprocal relationship between unhealthy eating behaviours and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence.
Unhealthy eating behaviours were measured by the frequencies of eating foods with excess salt, sugar or fat in the past week. Depressive symptoms in the past two weeks were measured using a seven-item scale. Hierarchical linear growth models were used to analyse longitudinal associations between unhealthy eating behaviours and depressive symptoms. Time-fixed variables (sex, parents’ education level and household monthly income) and time-varying variables (parents’ marital status, family activities, body weight, vegetable or fruit consumption, exercising and smoking) were controlled for.
The Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution study, which commenced in 2001 and has annual follow-up.
Students (n 2630) followed from 2nd grade (8 years old in 2002) to 11th grade.
The frequency of unhealthy eating behaviours in the previous year and the difference between the frequency in the previous and successive year were positively associated with the initiation and growth rate of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms in the previous year and the difference in depressive symptoms between the previous and successive year were positively associated with the initial state and growth rate of unhealthy eating behaviours.
Our results suggest a reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and unhealthy eating behaviours. This relationship should be considered when developing programmes targeting depressive symptoms and unhealthy diet in children and adolescents.
Biomolecular detection is crucial from various perspectives, such as quality
control of our food and water, identification of biological terrorist
agents, and diagnosis of diseases. Early detection of disease is important
for effective treatment and for prognostic assessment of disease
progression; in addition, the trend of ageing societies leads to an
increasing requirement for biomarker diagnoses for personalized healthcare
monitoring. This results in more stress on the social healthcare system [1,
2]. As a consequence, researchers have focused on developing biomolecular
detection devices and systems. Over the past decade, emerging methods to
address the above needs have bloomed because of developments in
micro/nanotechnologies. To enhance throughputs and reduce costs,
moreover, these detection devices and systems are evolving from label-based
to label-free technologies.
Traditionally, label-based molecular diagnosis techniques have been used as a
useful fundamental concept for the detection of potential disease biomarkers
or pathogen nucleic acids. In general, the detection signal comes from the
usage of a specific tag for a target molecule. The tags can be conventional
fluorescent dyes or radioisotopes. To fulfill the requirements of different
applications, a number of conventional label-based techniques, such as
polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA or protein microarrays, and
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), have been developed and
implemented. Some of them have been used to form a versatile platform for
many diverse applications with promising results and represent the gold
standards of biomedical diagnosis [3–5]. However, these techniques
require trained staff and expensive equipment, and are time-consuming.
Moreover, the detection of such low-abundance biomarkers in biological
fluids (e.g. blood, urine, saliva) requires large quantities of the sample
and complicated sample preparation. Consequently, these label-based
techniques encounter problems of cost-effectiveness and throughput under
We report our systematic survey observations of protostellar sources with the SubMillimeter Array (SMA) and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The purpose of our survey is to investigate formation mechanism of protoplanetary disks, precursors of planetary systems, out of ~1000 AU-scale protostellar envelopes surrounding the protostars. We found that in the early protostars (B335, NGC1333 IRAS 4B), the envelopes do not show significant rotating motions but infalling motions toward the central protostars. In more evolved protostars (L1527 IRS, L1448-mm, L1551 IRS 5), the envelopes are infalling and rotating with the conserved specific angular momenta (that is, vrot ∝ r−1). In most evolved sources (L1551 NE, TMC-1A, L1489 IRS) large-scale (≳100 AU) disks in Keplerian rotation or protoplanetary disks are evident. These results demonstrate a systematic evolutionary trend of envelope gas motions toward the disk formation.
This study reports on a corpus analysis of samples of spoken discourse between a group of British and Taiwanese adolescents, with the aim of exploring the statistically significant differences in the use of grammatical categories between the two groups of participants. The key word method extended to a part-of-speech level using the web-based corpus analytical tool, Wmatrix, highlights those linguistic domains which deserve particular attention. Specifically, it reveals the lexical and grammatical categories that occur unusually frequently or unusually infrequently in the English learners’ discourse when compared with the language used by the native speakers of English in the sample. The research findings delineate the pedagogical merit of key domain analysis and thus help to inform English as a foreign language teachers and materials developers in the design of courses emphasising spoken interaction.
To provide a counter electrode with lower-cost and simple production method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), we developed polyaniline/graphene nanoplatelet/multi-walled carbon nanotube (PANi/GNP/MWCNT) composite films growing on glass substrates by using chemical/electrochemical deposition method and on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/glass substrates by using electrochemical deposition method respectively. A proper weight ratio of PANi/GNP/MWCNT (1/0.0030/0.0045) composite film depositing on FTO substrate as counter electrode with sheet resistance of 8.25±0.13 Ω/sq for DSSCs yielded power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 7.45±0.08%, which has potential to replace the conventional Pt cell (7.62±0.07%). In addition, we also fabricated the DSSCs composed of a proper weight ratio of PANi/GNP/MWCNTs (1/0.0045/0.0060) composite film depositing on glass substrate as counter electrode. The sheet resistance of resulting composite film was 59.34±12.34 Ω/sq. These solar cells with FTO-free counter electrode exhibited a PCE of 2.90±0.09%.
A cross-linked copolymer was designed and synthesized bythe imidation of poly(oxyethylene)-diamine and 4,4’-oxydiphthalic anhydride, and followed by a late-stage curing to generate the cross-linked gels. The copolymers consisting of crosslinking sites and multiple functionalities such aspoly(oxyethylene)-segments, amido-acids, imides, and amine termini, characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. After the self-curing at 80 °C, the gel-like material enabled to absorb liquid form of electrolytesin the medium of propylene carbonate(PC), dimethylformamide(DMF),and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone(NMP).By using a field emission scanning electronic microscope, we observed a 3D interconnected nanochannel microstructure, within which, the liquid electrolytes were absorbed. When the novel polymer gel electrolyte (PGE) was fabricated into a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), an extremely high photovoltaic performance was demonstrated. The PGE, absorbed 76.7 wt% of the liquid electrolyte (soaking in the PC solution) based on the polymer’s weight gave rise to a power conversion efficiency of 8.31%, superior to that (7.89%) of the DSSC with liquid electrolytes. It was further demonstrated that the cell had a long-term stabilityduring the test of 1000hat-rest at room temperature or only slightly decreasing in efficiency of 5%.This is the first time demonstration for a PGE exhibiting a higher performance than its liquid counterpart cell. The observation is ascribed to the suppression of the back electron transfer through the unique morphology of the polymer microstructures.
Cancer is a serious public health problem worldwide, and its relationship
with affective disorders is not clear.
To investigate alcohol- and tobacco-related cancer risk among patients
with affective disorders in a large Taiwanese cohort.
Records of newly admitted patients with affective disorders from January
1997 through December 2002 were retrieved from the Psychiatric Inpatient
Medical Claims database in Taiwan. Cancers were stratified by site and
grouped into tobacco- or alcohol-related cancers. Standardised incidence
ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the risk of cancer between those
with affective disorders and the general population.
Some 10 207 patients with bipolar disorder and 9826 with major depression
were included. The risk of cancer was higher in patients with major
depression (SIR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.85–2.19) than in those with bipolar
disorder (SIR 1.39, 95% CI 1.26–1.53). The elevated cancer risk among
individuals ever admitted to hospital for affective disorders was more
pronounced in tobacco- and/or alcohol-related cancers.
Elevated cancer risk was found in patients who had received in-patient
care for affective disorders. They require holistic approaches to
lifestyle behaviours and associated cancer risks.
A radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique and subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 600, 700, 800, and 900 °C were implemented to grow high-quality Ga-doped MgxZn1-xO (GMZO) epi-layers. The GMZO films were deposited using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system and a 4 inch ZnO/MgO/Ga2O3 (75/20/5 wt %) target. The Hall results, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmittance were determined and are reported in this paper. The Hall results indicated that the increase in mobility was likely caused by the improved crystallization in the GMZO films after thermal annealing. The XRD results revealed that MgxZn1-xO (111) and MgO2 (200) peaks were obtained in the GMZO films. The absorption edges of the as-grown and annealed GMZO films shifted toward the short wavelength of 373 nm at a transmittance of 90%. According to these results, GMZO films are feasible for forming transparent contact layers for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.
III-V compounds such as InGaAs, InAs, InSb have great potential for future low power high speed devices (such as MOSFETs, QWFETs, TFETs and NWFETs) application due to their high carrier mobility and drift velocity. The development of good quality high k gate oxide as well as high k/III-V interfaces is prerequisite to realize high performance working devices. Besides, the downscaling of the gate oxide into sub-nanometer while maintaining appropriate low gate leakage current is also needed. The lack of high quality III-V native oxides has obstructed the development of implementing III-V based devices on Si template. In this presentation, we will discuss our efforts to improve high k/III-V interfaces as well as high k oxide quality by using chemical cleaning methods including chemical solutions, precursors and high temperature gas treatments. The electrical properties of high k/InSb, InGaAs, InSb structures and their dependence on the thermal processes are also discussed. Finally, we will present the downscaling of the gate oxide into sub-nanometer scale while maintaining low leakage current and a good high k/III-V interface quality.
Background: Executive dysfunction is not uncommon in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). This study aimed to investigate the applicability of executive function tests (EFTs) in aMCI as an aid in establishing the diagnosis of multi-domain MCI.
Methods: One hundred and twenty (120) aMCI patients, 126 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and 100 normal controls were enrolled. The EFTs evaluated included the trail making test, digit backward span, Stroop color–word test, and design fluency and category fluency tests.
Results: Of the aMCI participants, 66% exhibited impairment in at least one EFT. Among the five selected EFTs, the category fluency test was the most discriminative in detecting executive dysfunction between patients with aMCI (standardized β = 0.264) or AD (standardized β = 0.361) with the controls, followed by the Stroop test. The performance of aMCI patients with two or more impaired EFTs was significantly different from those of controls but not from those of AD patients.
Conclusion: In the clinical setting, aMCI patients who fail in two or more EFTs may represent a unique population with multi-domain MCI that require close follow-up.