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In this research communication, a cell model with elevated β-CASEIN synthesis was established by stimulating bovine mammary epithelial cells with 0.6 mM methionine, and the genome-wide gene expression profiles of methionine-stimulated cells and untreated cells were investigated by RNA sequencing. A total of 458 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 219 upregulated and 239 downregulated) were identified between the two groups. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that the two highest-ranked GO terms in ‘molecular function’ category were ‘binding’ and ‘catalytic activity’, suggesting that milk protein synthesis in methionine-stimulated cells requires induction of gene expression to increase metabolic activity. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that within the ‘environmental information processing’ category, the subcategory that is most highly enriched for DEGs was ‘signal transduction’. cGMP-PKG, Rap1, calcium, cAMP, PI3K-AKT, MAPK, and JAK-STAT are the pathways with the highest number of DEGs, suggesting that these signaling pathways have potential roles in mediating methionine-induced milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. This study provides valuable insights into the physiological and metabolic adaptations in cells stimulated with methionine. Understanding the regulation of this transition is essential for effective intervention in the lactation process.
In this study, we have spectroscopically investigated the plasma generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm focused on magnesium (Mg) and titanium (Ti) target samples in the air under atmospheric pressure. We employed circular cavities of radii (2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mm) and a square cavity to investigate the cavity confinement effect on the spectral emission intensities of the plasmas. We observed that the circular cavity of radius 2.5 mm had the maximum signal enhancement, and this can be attributed to the compression of the plasma and reheating by the reflected shock waves. The maximum enhancement factor of the Mg I-518.4 nm line was reached at approximately 3.8, 3.4, and 2.8 with a circular cavity of radius 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mm, respectively, at a delay time of 350 ns and a laser energy of 350 mJ. By applying varying external magnetic fields (0.47, 0.62, 0.91, and 1.23 T) across the generated plasma, the plasma parameters such as electron temperature and number density have been investigated. From our results, we observed that the radius of the cavity had a tremendous effect on the enhancement of the emission signal intensities. We also found that the increase in the electron temperature and the number density can be attributed to the increase in the applied magnetic field and the laser energy. From our calculations, the value of β, which was less than 1 for all the cases, confirms that there was a plasma confinement at the presence of the magnetic field.
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary threonine (Thr) on growth performance and muscle growth, protein synthesis and antioxidant-related signalling pathways of hybrid catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris♂. A total of 1200 fish (14·19 (se 0·13) g) were randomly distributed into six groups with four replicates each, fed six diets with graded level of Thr (9·5, 11·5, 13·5, 15·4, 17·4 and 19·3 g/kg diets) for 56 d. Results showed (P < 0·05) that dietary Thr (1) increased percentage weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio; (2) up-regulated growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen, myogenic regulation factors (MyoD, Myf5, MyoG and Mrf4) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) mRNA levels; (3) increased muscle protein content via regulating the protein kinase B/target of rapamycin signalling pathway and (4) decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, increased catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH activities, up-regulated mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes related to NFE2-related factor 2 and γ-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit. These results suggest that Thr has a potential role to improve muscle growth and protein synthesis, which might be due to the regulation of GH-IGF system, muscle growth-related gene, antioxidative capacity and protein synthesis-related signalling pathways. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of specific growth rate, the Thr requirement of hybrid catfish (14·19–25·77 g) was estimated to be 13·77 g/kg of the diet (33·40 g/kg of dietary protein).
The Sichuan–Yunnan–Guizhou (SYG) Pb–Zn metallogenic province is one of the most productive areas of Pb–Zn resources in China. The Fule deposit occurs in Permian carbonate and contains Pb–Zn reserves exceeding 1 Mt. To investigate the sulphur source, in situ S isotopic analysis of sphalerite and pyrite was carried out using nanoscale secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The results show that the δ34S values of the sulphide minerals range from +16.1‰ to +23.0‰, higher than that of marine sulphates hosted in Permian carbonate rocks (+11‰), but similar to that of sulphates over a broader area (+12.9‰ to +25.9‰). The sulphates in the regional rocks could therefore represent an important source of S for the Fule deposit via thermochemical sulphate reduction. The S source of the Fule deposit is different from those of most other Pb–Zn deposits in the SYG Pb–Zn mineralization province, which were mainly derived from the ore-bearing strata. The δ34S values of the early to late generations and some single sulphide crystals from the cores to rims show a slight increasing trend, implying that partial Rayleigh fractionation took place in the Fule deposit. It is suggested that the Fule sulphide precipitation resulted from the mixing of a metalliferous fluid with a H2S-rich fluid derived from the regional strata. Combining the geology, mineralogy and S isotope results with previous Pb isotope studies, it is suggested that the Fule deposit should be attributed to a Mississippi Valley type deposit.
We report a neonatal case of the use of alteplase for the lysis of a large aortic arch thrombus formed during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Alteplase (0.1–0.15 mg/kg/hour) was infused for thrombolysis, and meanwhile, unfractionated heparin was administrated at 5–10 U/kg/hour for the anticoagulation purpose. Alteplase was successfully administered to this neonate after the repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and the patient survived without apparent catastrophic long-term complications. It is reasonable to consider alteplase therapy during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in this setting.
Understand the fundamental theory and practical design aspects of green and soft wireless communications networks with this expert text. It provides comprehensive and unified coverage of 5G physical layer design, as well as design of the higher and radio access layers and the core network, drawing on viewpoints from both academia and industry. Get to grips with the theory through authoritative discussion of information-theoretical results, and learn about fundamental green design trade-offs, software-defined network architectures, and energy efficient radio resource management strategies. Applications of wireless big data and artificial intelligence to wireless network design are included, providing an excellent design reference, and real-world examples of employment in software-defined 5G networks and energy saving solutions from wireless communications companies and cellular operators help to connect theory with practice. This is an essential text for graduate students, professionals and researchers.
We provide explicit and unified formulas for the cocycles of all degrees on the normalized bar resolutions of finite abelian groups. This is achieved by constructing a chain map from the normalized bar resolution to a Koszul-like resolution for any given finite abelian group. With a help of the obtained cocycle formulas, we determine all the braided linear Gr-categories and compute the Dijkgraaf–Witten Invariants of the n-torus for all n.
This study aims to investigate the prevalence and genotype distribution of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men with different sexual orientations with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted during 2016–2017 in Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province. Convenient sampling was used to recruit male participants from HIV voluntary counselling and testing clinics and Center for Disease Control and Prevention. A face-to-face questionnaire interview was administered and an anal-canal swab was collected for HPV genotyping. A total of 160 HIV-positive and 113 HIV-negative men participated in the study. The prevalence of any type HPV was 30.6% for heterosexual men, 74.1% for homosexual and 63.6% for bisexual men among HIV-positive participants, while the prevalence was 8.3%, 29.2% and 23.8% respectively among HIV-negatives. The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-58 (16.9%), HPV-6 (15.6%) and HPV-11 (15.0%) among HIV-positive men, and were HPV-16 (4.4%), HPV-52 (4.4%) and HPV-6 (3.5%) among HIV-negative men. Having ever had haemorrhoids and having ever seen blood on tissue after defaecation was associated with HPV infection. One-fourth of the HPV infections in this study population can be covered by the quadrivalent vaccine in market. The highly prevalent anal HPV infection among men especially HIV-infected men calls for close observation and further investigation for anal cancer prevention.