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The Shiji (史記 Records of the Grand Historian) is of great value for Chinese history before 90 BCE. Many online databases provide character-based search of the Shiji. We go beyond simple search by creating an word-based open-access database of the Basic Annals (本纪) of the Shiji that allows the exploration of relationships between persons and the relationships between persons and named places.
Ostwald ripening is a pore-scale phenomenon that coarsens a dispersed phase until thermodynamic equilibrium. Based on our previous finding that multi-bubble equilibrium is possible and likely in complex porous media, we develop a new continuum-scale model for Ostwald ripening in heterogeneous porous media. In this model, porous media with two different capillary pressure curves are put into contact, allowing only diffusive flow through the aqueous phase to redistribute a trapped gas phase. Results show that Ostwald ripening can increase the gas saturation in one medium while decreasing the gas saturation in the other, even when the gas phase is trapped in pore spaces by capillary forces. We develop an analogous retardation factor to show that the characteristic time for Ostwald ripening is about
times slower than a single-phase diffusion problem due to the fact that separate-phase gas requires a much larger amount of mass transfer before equilibrium is established. An approximate solution has been developed to predict the saturation redistribution between the two media. The model has been validated by numerical simulation over a wide range of physical parameters. Millimetre to centimetre-scale systems come to equilibrium in years, ranging up to 10 000 years and longer for metre-scale systems. These findings are particularly relevant for geological
storage, where residual trapping is an important mechanism for immobilizing
. Our work demonstrates that Ostwald ripening due to heterogeneity in porous media is slow and on a similar time scale compared to other processes that redistribute trapped
such as convective mixing.
Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) precursor films were deposited by one-step RF sputtering process at room temperature under various sputtering power, and then films were annealed at different pressure of 10-3 Pa and 100 Pa. Films annealed at high vacuum of 10-3 Pa exhibit significant loss of Sn element and they construct with two phases of Cu1.8Se and ZnSe. Higher annealing pressure at 100 Pa can drastically reduce the loss of Sn element and result in single kesterite CZTSe phase of the annealed films. Loss of Se element is found in all the annealed films and the values of [Se]/[Metal] and [Sn]/[Zn] are related with sputtering power. High vacuum annealed films show cracks and porous structure on the surface, meanwhile, films annealed at 100 Pa show compact, densely packed homogeneous morphology.
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